8种信函写作要点大盘点

来源:未知 2019-02-26

1.信的基本类型

英文书信主要分为两大类:私人信函和公务信函。私人信函是指与朋友、家人之间的往来书信,其内容比较自由,只需要包括以下几个部分即可:日期、称呼、正文、落款。公务信函类型多样,应用范围非常广泛,属正式文体,包括求职信、辞职信、拒聘信、询问信、复询信、留学和奖学金申请信、投诉信、答复赔偿信等。此类信件的共同特点是:1.内容明确,不可漫无目标;2.措辞诚恳,坦然,不能感情夸张;3.语言清晰、简洁、有礼。从形式上看应该侧重考查公务信函,因为只有此类信函才需用到书面语的正式语体。

2.各类信函的内容要点

以下主要针对公务信函,介绍几种常见信函的基本特点。对于其他不同功能的信件,考生可以根据本书的介绍做到举一反三。在备考阶段,考生应熟悉各类信函的书写模式及常用话语并加强练习。

(1)求职信(Letters of Applying for a Job)

通常包含三个部分:a)引言部分写明写信原因、具体谋求的职位、获得申请信息的来源(如:报纸广告、熟人介绍)等。b)发展部分叙述自己能够胜任该职位所具备的条件,包括教育背景、工作经历、社会实践等。这部分内容要具体,不要空洞游说或者列举,用事实说服会更有力。C)结尾部分再次表达对职位的渴望,争取面试机会。如请求及时回信、希望当面洽谈、提供进一步接触的联系方式或指出附件中有相关的证明文件等。

求职信的语言应严谨、规范、得体。其常用套语有:

引言:I am writing to apply for the post of... advertised in...

In answer to your advertisement in... for the post of... , I would like to apply for...

I have learned from... (sb) of your opening/vacancy for... (job), and am therefore writing to apply for the post.

发展:I am now a senior student in (Department) of (University), and I expect to graduate in (date) with a degree in (discipline).

I receive my (degree) in (subject) from (name of university) in (date).

Since graduation, I have been working with (name of company/organization) as (job title)

I was awarded the prize of (title) in (month/year) for (eg. good performance in etc.)

I am confident that my academic training has prepared me to handle the job.

结尾:Enclosed are testimonials from my university teacher and my present employer.

If these meet your requirements, please grant me an interview.

 #p#副标题#e#

(2)辞职信(Letters of Resignation)

正式的辞职信应具备以下要素: a)受理者恰当的称呼; b)辞职决定及其理由(如:未受公司重用或尊重,健康、家庭或个人原因,另觅一份更适合自己的工作等); c)缓和气氛的语句,如对原单位所给予工作机会以及提供的工作经历表示感谢,对因自己辞职而给对方带来的不便表示歉意,表达对原单位的良好祝愿等等。

需要注意的是:避免负面评论。不论什么原因,不要对你的公司政策、老板、管理人员、同事做任何负面评价。

常用套语如下:

称呼:Dear Mr. Smith

辞职决定和理由: With regret, I am writing to inform you about my decision to resign from my current position.

I hereby confirm in writing my resignation from ABC Company because of family reasons.

缓和语气的话:I would like to express my sincere gratitude and thanks for all the support that I have received over the last few weeks, and for the enjoyable experience of having worked for your company.

I hope you will consider my request, and I apologize for any inconveniences I might have caused.

I wish all of you a prosperous future

(3)留学和奖学金申请信(Letters of Applying for Admittance and Scholarship)

申请者是通过申请信争取继续学习和获得奖学金的机会,而申请学校负责人则是通过该信决定其是否具有这样的机会。因此这封信需要尽可能得表现写信人所具有的优势,比如个人性格优点,学业工作成绩等等。信的内容通常涉及:

a) 申请该学校/奖学金的原因;

b) 使你对某个专业产生兴趣的学术背景和训练;

c) 工作经验;

d) 能证明你潜能的研究;

e) 未来职业计划。

如果对方学校有要求,还应附上“个人简历”、学习成绩、研究成果的摘要等。

虽然申请信需要表现自己去争取机会,但其语言不应过于夸张,避免使用像excellentremarkablewonderfulgreat之类的形容词吹捧申请的学校或夸耀自己,而应自然而平实。其常用套语有:

I am a student in... , expecting to graduate with a Bachelors degree this summer.

I am interested in... and plan to apply for admission for (time).

I am writing in the hope that I may obtain an opportunity to further my study in...

I should be pleased to forward my credentials, such as references, transcripts and photocopies of IELTS scores.

 #p#副标题#e#

(4)询问信(Letters of Inquiry)

询问信是请求对方提供需要信息的信件。可分三大部分:引言部分自我介绍并讲明询问目的。发展部分是询问的主要内容,如果包括多个方面,为了让对方一目了然,也便于回答,在内容的安排上应简明扼要,可以用数字列出具体问题,如first, second, third或1、2、3。结尾部分真诚地感谢对方。

由于询问有可能给对方带来麻烦,所以措辞要谦虚、诚恳。其常用套语有:

引言:As a student at... university, I am preparing for...

Your answers to the questions below would help me...

As we are particularly interested in... , we should be grateful if you would kindly...

发展:Could you please send me the relevant information and application form?

结尾:Your answer will contribute to my project.

I would appreciate receiving your answer by... ( time ).

(5)投诉信

投投诉信是因为对服务、商品等不满而向诸如商店、厂家、消费者协会等相关负责机构写的信件。写此类信件时候,应注意写信的目的不仅仅是表示不满,更重要的是让对方了解并解决你所遇到的问题。因此投诉信的内容可包括:

1)反映问题。比如应具体说明什么质量问题,并提供确切的发票,问题的内容要明确而具体。

2)说明由此问题所带来的不便、比如时间或精神上的损失等,内容要实事求是。

3)提出解决方案,赔偿方法和方式等,所提出的要求要合理。

4)结尾既要提出希望,比如要求对方尽快解决问题,同时又要为对方做出的努力表示感谢,这样对方才可能以积极的态度处理并解决你的问题。

投诉信的语气要坚决,但注意礼貌用词,不宜过分尖锐,叙述问题时用过去时态。其常用套语有:

引言:I am returning... which I bought from your store in... (time).

I must complain about...

发展:This has put us to great inconvenience.

Therefore, I am returning... and would greatly appreciate if you could replace it.

结尾:We hope that you will understand our expectation of the compensation for our damaged goods.

I would be grateful if this matter would have your immediate attention.

Having been given your excellent reputation, I am sure you will do everything possible to...

 #p#副标题#e#

(6)建议信

建议信是写信人希望对解决问题有所帮助而向相关部门或者个人写的信件,其主要目的是提出自己的意见,希望对方能够采纳并采取相应行动。为了达到交际目的,所提建议要合理、可行、容易让对方接受。除此之外还需要注意语气要和善,要与对方拉近距离而不可盛气凌人。

建议信的内容一般包括:1)提出亟待解决的问题;2) 分析造成问题的原因;3)提出解决办法。

常用套语有:

提出问题:It seems that … (not have desired effects, not have obtained the full attention; be not satisfactory/ perfect; have harmful/ deadly/ serious/negative effects)

I am …(deeply/ really/ seriously/ terribly/greatly) concerned / worried / sad / confused about

分析原因:Currently, … especially … ;Therefore,… ;This leads to…; one of the factors is …;

It is understood that ifit will….

提出解决方法:In order to combat the growing problem of… , … should reduce/ increase/ ensure…; I think it would be more beneficial if you could….; I think it would be helpful to….

(7)道歉信

道歉信是写信人对未尽之事向收信人表示歉意。所有道歉信都需要注意的是:解释的理由要真实而详细,态度要诚恳、语言要诚挚,从而使收信人理解,并达到最终谅解。道歉信的内容可包括:1)表示歉意并说明道歉的事因;2)解释自己的难处或苦衷;3)请求原谅或提出补救的方法。

常用套语有:

表达歉意:Theres no excuse forI forgot to ….

I am indeed very sorry for …, but believe I had no intention to

Here is my deepest apology for ...

Please forgive me for

 #p#副标题#e#

解释苦衷:The fact is that I had …/ Unfortunately I …/ I had a small accident …/ I have some urgent business to deal with My behavior yesterday was inexcusable, and I must tell you how

请求原谅提出补救方法:I want you to know how badly feel aboutand to assure you that it will not happen again.

I realize that particularis irreplaceable, but I hope you will use the enclosed check to purchase a similar one.

I hope this situation can be mended to everyones satisfaction.

I can only hope you will forgiveon my part.

(8)感谢信

感谢信的目的是感激对方为自己的付出,感激之情要传达得真挚自然,不要刻意夸大。感谢信所涉及的内容多种多样,比如可以感谢对方替自己做了一件事情,在自己痛苦时安慰了自己,出席了自己的宴会等等。其内容包括:1)表达感激之情2)回顾事情的经过 3)肯定对方帮助的价值以及对自己的影响,表达自己回报的愿望。

常用套语有:

表达感激之情:Thanks so much for…;Abundant thanks tofor

Im writing to express my heartfelt thanks for

On behalf of my whole family, I wish to extend our heartfelt thanks for all the trouble you had taken inI must write to thank you for inviting me to

肯定对方帮助的价值及影响:You will never know how much we appreciated your kind and practical help. Yourmeant more than I can express in words. Nothing can be more precious for me than your

表达回报的愿望:I hope I can return the favor somedayDo call on me if I can ever return the favor.

感谢信中比较特殊是求职者面试后给面试官写的信。此类感谢信的内容不只是感谢,而是一般感谢信和求职信的结合。其主要内容包括:(1)感谢对方给你面谈的机会,并注明你面试的时间和所求的职位;(2)说明你对该公司、该职位的兴趣,强调你的知识与技能符合公司的需要,表示自己能为公司的发展做出贡献。也可以补充说明或澄清在面谈中忽略或没有讲明的问题(3)重申你对该职位的兴趣,主动提供更多的材料,表示期待他们的消息。




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