来源:网络 2019-01-30


Human beings in all times and places think about their world and wonder at their place in it.Humans are thoughtful and creativepossessed of insatiable curiosity. (61)Furthermorehumans have the ability to modify the environment in which they livethus subjecting all other life forms to their own peculiar ideas and fancies.Thereforeit is important to study humans in all their richness and diversity in a calm and systematic mannerwith the hope that the knowledge resulting from such studies can lead humans to a more harmonious way of living with themselves and with all other life forms on this planet Earth.

Anthropologyderives from the Green words anthroposhumanand logosthe study of”.By its very nameanthropology encompasses the study of all humankind.

Anthropology is one of the social sciences. (62)Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasonedorderlysystematicand dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena.

Social science disciplines include geographyeconomicspolitical sciencepsychologyand sociology.Each of thesesoical sciences has a subfield or specialization which lies particularly close to anthropology.

All the social sciences focus upon the study of humanity.Anthropology is a fieldstudy oriented discipline which makes extensive use of the comparative method in analysis. (63)The emphasis on data gathered firsthandcombined with a crosscultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures past and presentmakes this study a unique and distinctly important social science.

Anthropological analyses rest heavily upon the concept of culture.Sir Edward Tylors formulation of the concept of culture was one of the great intellectual achievements of19th century science. (64)Tylor defined culture as“…that complex whole which includes beliefartmoralslawcustomand any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”. This insightso profound in its simplicityopened up an entirely new way of perceiving and understa nding human life.Implicit within Tylors definition is the concept that culture is learnedsharedand patterned behavior.

(65)Thusthe anthropological concept ofculture”,like the concept ofsetin mathematicsis an abstract concept whichmakes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.



cross-cultrual perspective 跨文化的角度

concrete research 具体研究


inmanner 以…方式;用…方法

seek to 力图;试图;设法

combined with 加上;连同

bring to 加进;使用;采用

defineas… 把…定义为

makespossible 使…成为可能











nothing but 只不过是

by means of 通过;借助于

by the help of 通过…的帮助

in a sort of sense 从某种意义上来说

manage to do sth. 设法做到

extractfrom 从……提炼出

out of…起源;来源;根据

build up 建立;树立

by no means 绝不

be compared with 与……相比

a sort of 某种

set…… in motion 开始;

differ in…在…方面不同

go through 经历;经受;仔细检查

in the one case =on the one hand

in the course of the day=during the day

a train of=a series of=an array of=a variety of