来源:www.putclub.com 2019-03-22

Pass the bacteria, please
Bacteria are terribly good for you. So say the promoters of a rapidly growing industry inprobioticproducts. The titleprobiotic” (for life) is technically reserved for those food products containing living cultures ofgoodmicroorganisms. Just how good are they? It depends on to whom you are listening.
Microbic marketingis highly competitive; many brands of yogurts, many yogurt drinks, and many capsules of live bacteria are on displayall promising to be good for you! Promotions are intense, and the questions are many. Do healthy people need cultures of bacteria when they already have a crowd of fine bacteria at work? How valid are the claims that probiotic products increase the health of intestinal cells, degrade toxins, or prevent cancer? There is yet no scientific consensus, and for now, consumers must decide for themselves.
The recent interest in probiotic products has grown out of a concern for the side effects of antibiotics in the 1950s. Since antibiotics are not very selective as to which bacteria they attack, those prescribed for a toothache can quickly wipe out a whole population of intestinal microbes. Bacteria contained in fermented-milk products appeared to be effective in restoring populations of the beneficial bacteria after such a catastrophe. In the development of probiotic products, different species of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are selected according to their abilities to produce yogurt, to survive passage through the digestive tract, and to establish themselves in their new environment by out?competing potentially unfriendly microbes for space and nutrients. This last criterion is not always easy to measure.
Cultures of yogurt, according to the National Yogurt Association, must contain at least 100 million live bacteria per gram. (Check to see how many bacteria are in one serving of your favorite yogurt.) It?s a big number, but it is impossible to know how many will loiter in your digestive system. Research now is underway to determine whether probiotic products might take the place of controversial antibiotics in livestock feed, or if bacterial/antibacterial compounds might be useful as food preservatives. Probiotics is about using bacteria to control other bacteria!

“微生物产品”的市场竞争非常激烈。许多种品牌的酸奶、酸奶饮料和多种真菌胶囊都在展示之中——它们都被说成会对你的身体有好处。促销活动密集,而留给人们的疑问也是很多的。健康人的体内有众多有益的微生物在活动。那么他们是否还需要培养菌呢?有人声称“益生菌”产品会促进大肠内细胞的健康生长,使毒素降解并防止癌症的发生。这种说法的可靠性有多大呢?对于这些问题,科学界还没有统一的认识。消费者必须自己做出决定。 #p#副标题#e#

reserve  n.①储备(物),储藏量,储备金;②缄默,谨慎;v.①保留,储备;②预定,预约
[真题例句] 58. The author's attitude toward Richard Lamms remark is one of_________.[2003年阅读4]
[B] reserved (v.①) consent
[例句精译] 58?作者对理查德·拉姆所作评论的态度是________。
[B] 有保留的赞同
display  v./n.陈列,展览,显示
[真题例句] While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and yourwaresand abilities must be displayed(v.) in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.[1996年阅读1]
[例句精译] 在与你谈话时,你未来的雇主将根据你的教育、你的经验和你其他的资历来确定雇用你是否值得,因此你必须把你的“品质”和能力以有序、合理且连贯的方式展示出来。
prescribe  v.①指示,规定;②处(方),开(药)

[真题例句] George Annas, chair of the health law department at Boston University, maintains that, as long as a doctor prescribes (②) a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the doctor has done nothing illegal even if the patient uses the drug to hasten death.[2002年阅读4] 
[例句精译] 波士顿大学健康法律系主任乔治·安纳斯坚持认为,只要医生是出于合理的医疗目的开药,那么即使服用此药会加速病人的死亡,医生的行为也没有违法。
ferment  n.酵素, 发酵, 动乱v.(使)发酵, (使)激动, (使)动乱
criterion n.([pl.]criteria)标准,准则
[真题例句] Narrowing your criteria, for example, may work against you: “Every time you answer a question you eliminate a possibility.” says one expert..

[例句精译] 比如,缩小你的要求条件就有可能对你不利。一位专家说:“你每回答一次问题你就丧失一次机会。”

bacterial  a.细菌的 #p#副标题#e#
[真题例句] The rats (49:develop) bacterial infections of the blood, (50:as if) their immune systemsthe self-protecting mechanism against diseasehad crashed.[1995年完形]
[例句精译] 老鼠患血液细菌感染,似乎它们的免疫系统——抵御疾病的自我保护机制——已崩溃。