2010考研英语历年真题来源报刊阅读17:SWIFTER, HIGHER, STRONGER

来源:www.putclub.com 2019-01-17

SWIFTER, HIGHER, STRONGER 
  
Although Citius, altius, fortius (“Swifter, higher, stronger”) is the Latin motto of todays Olympic Games, athletes have been striving to improve their athletic skills since ancient times. All over ancient Greece, athletic contests, dance contests, and horse, boat, and torch races were held. Greek literature describes the many sports that were popular in ancient times; murals and statues show discus throwers, wrestlers, and charioteers.
  
Organized games in Greece began 3,500 years ago. By the sixth century B.C., there were several Greek sporting festivals, but the most important one took place in Olympia every fourth summer. The Olympic Games were held in honor of Zeus, the father of the gods. Only citizens of Greek city-states could participate, and the only race, a sprint, was run over a distance called a stade (200 yards). Coroebus, a cook who won the race in 776 B.C., was the first recorded champion.
  
Gradually, other running events were added, as well as horse racing, wrestling, a pentathlon, chariot racing, and boxing. Athletes competed in the nude; women could neither participate nor watch. At a banquet, champions were presented with olive wreaths.
  
When Rome conquered Greece in the second century B.C., the games continued. In 394 A.D., the Roman emperor Theodosius, a Christian, banned all festivals that honored Olympic gods. The Olympic Games ended. Fifteen hundred years later, in 1894, Frenchman Baron Pierre de Coubertin (coo-bare-TENH) revived interest in the games.
  
The modern Olympic Games were organized as a way of promoting peace, friendship, and healthy sporting competition among the youth of the world. Athens, Greece, was chosen as the site of the first modern Olympics. Held in April 1896, the games involved 13 nations, 311 male athletes, 42 events, and nine sports. Women were not allowed to compete until four years later. The United States won nine of the track and field events, but Greece won the most medals with 47.
  
The Olympic Games are held in a different country every four years. At the opening ceremonies, the Greek team always leads the parade of athletes. The Olympic flame is still lit in Olympia and carried to the site of the games by a series of torchbearers. This tradition began in Germany in 1936 when 3,000 runners crossed seven countries on their journey from Greece. The passage of the Olympic torch captures the imagination of the world, reminding people of the original focus of the games-world peace and sportsmanship.
  
In ancient Greece, all wars ceased for as long as the games lasted. Unfortunately, that has not been the case in modern times. The 1916 games were canceled because of World War I, and World War II caused the cancellation of the 1940 and 1944 games.
  
The games have gone through many changes since the first Olympics in ancient Greece. The September 2000 games in Sydney, Australia, the 27th modern Olympics, are scheduled to last 16 days, and involve 10,000 athletes, 198 countries, and 28 sports. #p#副标题#e#

参考译文:
尽管拉丁语Citius, altius, fortius (更快,更高,更强)是现代奥林匹克运动的座右铭,但早在远古时期运动员就已经开始积极地提高他们的运动技巧了。在古希腊各地都进行着田径赛、舞蹈比赛、赛马、赛船,以及火炬赛跑。希腊文学作品描述了许多在古代就很流行的体育项目,各种壁画和雕塑也展示了古希腊投掷铁饼、摔跤和马车比赛的场景。
  
举行体育运动会始于3500年前的希腊。到了公元前6世纪,希腊有几种体育节日,但其中最重要的是每隔4年在夏季举行的奥林匹克运动会。当时举办奥林匹克运动会是为了纪念众神之父——宙斯。只有希腊城邦的公民可以参加,且只有一个竞赛项目——短跑,即200码(1码约合0.9144米)短跑。公元前776年,一个名叫Coroebus的厨师是第一个记录在册的冠军。
  
后来,运动项目不断增加,包括赛马、摔跤、五项全能、马车比赛和拳击等。参加比赛的运动员全是裸体男性,妇女既不让参加也不让观看。在庆祝宴会上,冠军被戴上橄榄枝花环。
  
即使在公元前二世纪古罗马占领希腊时,运动会还继续举行。公元394年,罗马皇帝基督教徒狄奥多西一世禁止纪念奥林匹克众神的所有节日。奥林匹克运动会停止举行。1500年以后,1894年,法国男爵顾拜旦对运动会重新产生了兴趣。
  
现代奥林匹克运动会提倡在世界青年中发展和平、友谊和健康的体育竞技精神。希腊雅典被选为第一届现代奥林匹克运动会的主办城市。于1896年4月举办的这届运动会有13个参赛国,311名男运动员,42个项目和9项运动(4年以后妇女才被允许参加运动会)。美国在9 项田径项目中获得冠军,而希腊获得的奖牌最多,达47枚。
  
奥林匹克运动会每隔4年在不同的国家举办。历届奥运会开幕式上,希腊队总是走在运动员队伍的最前列。奥林匹克火焰仍燃烧在希腊的奥林匹亚,然后由多名火炬手传递到运动会举办城市。这一传统始于1936年的德国,3000名运动员从希腊出发,沿途穿越了7个国家。奥林匹克火炬之路激发了全世界的想象,唤起了人们对奥林匹克运动会宗旨的再认识,那就是世界和平和体育精神。
  
古代希腊,只要有奥运会,战争就会为此而停止。不幸的是,在现代情况并非如此。1916年的运动会因第一次世界大战而取消;1940和1944年的两次奥运会,由于第二次世界大战而停止。
  
自从古希腊的第一次奥林匹克运动会以来,运动会已经有了很大变化。2000年9月在澳大利亚悉尼举办的第27届奥运会,历时16天,1万多名运动员和198个国家参加,有28种运动。

词汇解析:

strive[straiv] v.奋斗,努力
  
[真题例句] Private businessmen, striving to make profits, produce these goods and services in competition with other businessmen; and the profit motive, operating under competitive pressures, largely determines how these goods and services are produced.[1994年阅读1]
  
[例句精译] 为了获取利润,私有企业主在与他人竞争中生产这些产品,提供这些服务。在竞争的压力下追求利润的动机以及如何运作在很大程度上决定生产商品和提供服务的方式。
  
participate  v.①(in)参与,参加;②分享,分担

[真题例句] Without the ability to think critically, to defend their ideas and understand the ideas of others, they cannot fully participate (①) in our democracy.[2004年阅读4]
 
[例句精译] 如果不能批判地思考、不能维护自己的主张、不能理解他人的思想,他们就不能充分地参与民主社会。
  
revive  v.①使苏醒;②复苏,复兴 #p#副标题#e#
  
[真题例句] 41. The emergence of the Net has.[2003年阅读1]
[D] revived (②) spying as a profession
[例句精译] 41. 网络的出现已经。
[D] 使间谍职业复兴
  
promote  v.①促进,发扬;②提升,提拔;③增进,助长;④宣传,推销
  
[真题例句] The standardized educational or psychological test that are widely used to aid in selecting, classifying, assigning, or promoting (②) students, employees, and military personnel have been the target of recent attacks in books, magazines, the daily press, and even in congress.[1995年翻译]
  
[例句精译] 标准化教育测试或心理测试目前广泛应用于协助选拔、分类、委派或提升学生、雇员和军事人员:这些测试一直是某些人近些年来在书籍、杂志、日报乃至国会中抨击的目标。
  
[真题例句] Apart from the fact that twenty?seven acts of Parliament govern the terms of advertising, no regular advertiser dare promote (④) a product that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements.[1995年阅读1]
  
[例句精译] 除了国会制定的二十七项法案对广告词加以约束之外,没有任何正规广告商胆敢推销与广告承诺不符的产品。
  
parade  n.游行,检阅;v.(使)列队行进,游行
  
cease  v./n. 停止,中止

[真题例句] If we do not confront and overcome these internal fears and doubts, if we protect ourselves too much, then we cease to grow.[1995年阅读2]
[例句精译] 如果我们不能去正视并克服这些内在的恐惧和疑虑,如果我们过于自我保护,那么我们就会停止成长。

背景知识:

在人类历史发展的长河中,除了宗教这一古老的社会文化现象外,奥林匹克运动可以称得上是一个历史最为悠久的社会文化现象。奥林匹克运动的起源从有文字记载的历史可以追溯到公元前776年。但在此以前,古代奥林匹克运动可能已经存在了几个世纪。奥林匹克运动会简称“奥运会”,是由国际奥林匹克委员会主办的世界性综合运动会。

 




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