来源:www.putclub.com 2019-04-17

Organ transplants: Your part or mine
AS MARKETS in human organs go, the one which flourishes on Tehrans Vali Asr street, where Irans main transplant hospital is located, is not the cruellestand there is no lack of people willing to discuss their transactions. Gholamreza, a 44-year-old man from northern Iran, explains what he did when his dialysis started to fail. “I put an advertisement in the paper for a kidney, and a donor came straight to me. We reached an agreement on the price quite quickly. In these cases, the recipient usually takes care of the donor afterwards. So I still visit my donor and help him out.”
Another man wandering round the district, aged around 30 and wearing torn, cheap clothing, is hoping he can find a buyer as decent as Gholamreza claims to be. He expects to get between $3,000 and $4,000 for one of his kidneys. “I need the money because I lost out in a pyramid investment scam. After the operation I wont be able to lift heavy things, but I can still live with only one kidney.”
Irans Association of Kidney Patients, a non-government organisation which obviously enjoys official favour, is responsible for all legal kidney transplants: it insists that commercial deals are the exception, not the rule. For one thing, it says, the religious authorities encourage voluntary gifts: in other words, cases where a patient receives a kidney freely offered by a friend or relative. Pious Muslims may also offer up a kidney to anyone who needs it.
For surgeons, patients and medical economists alike, the shortage of kidneys seems frustrating, because no organ lends itself better to transplant. As long as they receive decent after-care, kidney donors suffer only the tiniest increase in their own risk of dying of kidney disease. And transplants make economic sense: the cost of one kidney operation and a lifetimes supply of anti?rejection drugs equals that of three yearsdialysis. Kidneys donated by a living person last for a median 22 years in another body; when they are taken from a fresh corpse, the figure is 14 years.
Whatever solution they propose to the shortage of kidneys, nobody doubts that the black market, as it now works, has grotesque effects, both for donors and recipients. Rich westerners who go to South Asia or Africa in search of kidneys often receive organs that are diseased or unsuitable.
Nancy Scheper-Hughes, an American professor of medical anthropology and campaigner against organ trading, says the way poor Brazilians were induced to travel to South Africa is typical of the abuses a market in body parts, especially an international one, is bound to cause. She says donors in the Brazilian slums were given false promises about the money they would make, the care they would receive and the after-effects of the operation.
Some senior figures in the medical world draw a different conclusion: as long as some people are determined to obtain kidneys and others are desperate enough to sell them, the trade will be impossible to stopso it makes better sense to regulate the business than drive it underground.


就人体器官市场而言,活跃于德黑兰瓦里阿瑟(Vali Asr)大街的市场还不算是最悲惨的,这里坐落着伊朗主要的移植医院——也从不缺愿意讨论交易的人。来自伊朗北部的44岁男子古拉姆瑞扎(Gholamreza)解释了他在肾脏透析治疗开始不起作用之后所做的事:“我在报纸上刊登了一则寻求肾脏的广告,就有一名捐赠者直接同我联系。我们很快就谈好了价格。在这类情况下,接受捐献者以后通常会照顾捐赠者。因此,我常看望我的捐赠人,并帮助他解决困难。”
显然受到官方支持的非政府组织“伊朗肾脏患者协会(Irans Association of Kidney Patients)”负责所有合法的肾脏移植事务:该组织坚持称,商业交易是例外,而不是常态。它表示,首先,宗教权威鼓励自愿捐献;此外,患者通常接受的是由朋友或亲戚免费提供的肾脏。虔诚的穆斯林也会将肾脏捐献给任何需要的人。
南希·谢柏?休斯(Nancy Scheper?Hughes)是一名美国医学人类学教授,也是一名反对器官买卖的活动人士,她说,劝诱巴西穷人前往南非旅行的方式是人体器官市场,特别是国际性的市场,所必然促生的典型弊端。她表示,巴西贫民窟的捐赠者只得到有关可挣钱款、所获照顾以及手术后果的虚假承诺。 #p#副标题#e#
flourish  v.繁荣,茂盛,兴旺

[真题例句] Its theory to which many economists subscribe, but in practice it often leaves railroads in the position of determining which companies will flourish and which will fail.[2003年阅读3]
[例句精译] 这种理论得到了多数经济学家的认同,但在实际操作中,它使铁路公司获得了一个决定谁败谁荣的权利。
transaction  n.①办理,处理;②交易,事务;③[pl.]会报,学报
[真题例句] Conrail?s net railway operating income in 1996 was just $427 million, less than half of the carrying costs of the transaction (②).[2003年阅读3]
[例句精译] 联合铁路公司1996年铁路运营纯收入为4.27亿美元,这还不足这宗交易运作成本的一半。
recipient a.容易接受的,感受性强的;n.①容纳者,容器;②接受者

[真题例句] This kind of support, like all government support, requires decisions about the appropriate recipients (n.②) of funds.[1996年翻译] 
[例句精译] 这种资助就像所有的政府资助一样,需要决定资金的合适的接受对象。
voluntary  a.自愿的,志愿的
[真题例句] Downshiftingalso known in America asvoluntary simplicity”—has, ironically, even bred a new area of what might be termed anti-consumerism.

[例句精译] 具有讽刺意味的是,“放慢生活节奏”——在美国也称“自愿简单化”——甚至孕育了一个崭新的、可称之为反消费主义的生活方式。
bound    v./n. 跳(跃);a.①被束缚的,理应……的,必定的,一定的;②准备(或正在)到……去的,开往……的;③(be bound up with) 与……有密切关系

[真题例句] The innovator will search for alternate courses, which may prove easier in the long run and are bound (a.①) to be more interesting and challenging even if they lead to dead ends.[1994年阅读5]
[例句精译] 创新者则会探寻另外不同的道路,而这样的道路将会最终被证实更简单、也一定更有趣、更富挑战性,即使它们通向绝境。
[真题例句] (72) Furthermore, it is obvious that the strength of a countrys economy is directly bound (a.③) up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry, and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds.[2000年翻译]
[例句精译] (72)再者,显而易见的是一个国家的经济实力与其工农业生产效率直接相关,而效率的提高则又有赖于各类科技人员的努力。
desperate  a.①绝望的;②不顾一切的,拼死的

[真题例句] 59. Which of the following best defines the wordaggressive” (Line 1, Paragraph 7)?[2002年阅读4]
[D] Desperate (①)
[例句精译] 59.下面的哪个词最好地解释了“aggressive”一词(第七段第一行)的意思?
[D] 不顾一切的