2007年全国硕士研究生考试英语真题及答案

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2007年全国硕士研究生考试英语真题及答案
 

Section I Use of English


DirectionsRead the following text. Choose the best wordsfor each numbered blank and mark ABCand D on ANSWER SHEET 1 (10 points


By 1830 the former Spanish and Portuguese colonies had become independent nations. The roughly 20 million 1 of these nations looked 2 to the future. Born in the crisis of the old regime and Iberian Colonialismmany of the leaders of independence 3 the ideas of representative governmentcareers 4 to talentfreedom of commerce and tradethe 5 to private propertyand a belief in the individual as the basis of society, 6 there was a belief that the new nations should be sovereign and independent stateslarge enough to be economically viable and integrated by a 7 set of laws.


On the issue of 8 of religion and the position of the church, 9 , there was less agreement 10 the leadership. Roman Catholicism had been the state religion and the only one 11 by the Spanish crown, 12 most leaders sought to maintain Catholicism 13 the official religion of the new statessome sought to end the 14 of other faiths. The defense of the Church became a rallying 15 for the conservative forces.


The ideals of the early leaders of independence were often egalitarianvaluing equality of everything. Bolivar had received aid from Haiti and had 16 in return to abolish slavery in the areas he liberated. By 1854 slavery had been abolished everywhere except Spain's 17 colonies. Early promises to end Indian tribute and taxes on people of mixed origin came much 18 because the new nations still needed the revenue such policies 19 Egalitarian sentiments were often tempered by fears that the mass of the population was 20 self-rule and democracy.


1. [A] natives  [B] inhabitants  [C] peoples  [D] individuals


2. [A] confusedly  [B] cheerfully  [C] worriedly  [D] hopefully


3. [A] shared  [B] forgot  [C] attained  [D] rejected


4. [A] related  [B] close  [C] open  [D] devoted


5. [A] access  [B] succession  [C] right  [D] return


6. [A] Presumably  [B] Incidentally  [C] Obviously  [D] Generally


7. [A] unique  [B] common  [C] particular  [D] typical


8. [A] freedom  [B] origin  [C] impact  [D] reform


9. [A] therefore  [B] however  [C] indeed  [D] moreover


10. [A] with  [B] about  [C] among  [D] by


11. [A] allowed  [B] preached  [C] granted  [D] funded


12. [A] Since  [B] If  [C] Unless  [D] While


13. [A] as  [B] for  [C] under  [D] against


14. [A] spread  [B] interference  [C] exclusion  [D] influence


15. [A] support  [B] cry  [C] plea  [D] wish


16. [A] urged  [B] intended  [C] expected  [D] promised


17. [A] controlling  [B] former  [C] remaining  [D] original


18. [A] slower  [B] faster  [C] easier  [D] tougher


19. [A] created  [B] produced  [C] contributed  [D] preferred


20. [A] puzzled by  [B] hostile to  [C] pessimistic about  [D] unprepared fo#p#副标题#e#

Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
Directions
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing ABC or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points
Text 1
If you were to examine the birth certificates of every soccer player in 2006's World Cup tournament you would most likely find a noteworthy quirk elite soccer later months. If you then examined the European national youth teams that feed the World Cup and professional ranksyou would find this strange phenomenon to be even more pronounced.
What might account for this strange phenomenonHere are a few guessesacertain astrological signs confer superior soccer skills. bwinter-born bathes tend to have higher oxygen capacity which increases soccer stamina. csoccer mad parents are more likely to conceive children in springtime at the annual peak of soccer mania. dnone of the above.
Anders Ericssona 58-year-old psychology professor at Florida State Universitysays he believes strongly innone of the above.” Ericsson grew up in Swedenand studied nuclear engineering until he realized he realized he would have more opportunity to conduct his own research if he switched to psychology. His first experiment nearly years agoinvolved memorytraining a person to hear and then repeat a random series of numbers. “With the first subject. after about 20 hours of training his digit span had risen from 7 to 20,” Ericsson recalls. “He kept improvingand after about 200 hours of training he had risen to over 80 numbers.”
This success coupled with later research showing that memory itself as not genetically determinedled Ericsson to conclude that the act of memorizing is more of a cognitive exercise than an intuitive one. In other wordswhatever inborn differences two people may exhibit in their abilities to memorize those differences are swamped by how well each personencodesthe information. And the best way to learn how to encode information meaningfullyEricsson determinedwas a process known as deliberate practice. Deliberate practice entails more than simply repeating a task. Ratherit involves setting specific goalsobtaining immediate feedback and concentrating as much on technique as on outcome.
Ericsson and his colleagues have thus taken to studying expert performers in a wide range of pursuitsincluding soccer. They gather all the data they cannot just predominance statistics and biographical details but also the results of their own lavatory experiments with high achievers. Their work makes a rather startling assertionthe trait we commonly call talent is highly overrated. Orput another wayexpert performers whether in memory or surgeryballet or computer programming are nearly always madenot born.
[410 words]
21. The birthday phenomenon found among soccer players is mentioned to
  [A] stress the importance of professional training.
  [B] spotlight the soccer superstars in the World Cup.
  [C] introduce the topic of what males expert performance.
  [D] explain why some soccer teams play better than others.
22. The wordmania” (Line 4, Paragraph 2) most probably means
  [A] fun.
  [B] craze.
  [C] hysteria.
  [D] excitement.
23. According to Ericsson good memory
  [A] depends on meaningful processing of information.
  [B] results from intuitive rather than cognitive exercises.
  [C] is determined by genetic rather than psychological factors.
  [D] requires immediate feedback and a high degree of concentration.
24. Ericsson and his colleagues believe that
  [A] talent is a dominating factor for professional success.
  [B] biographical data provide the key to excellent performance.
  [C] the role of talent tends to be overlooked.
  [D] high achievers owe their success mostly to nurture.
25. Which of the following proverbs is closest to the message the text tries to convey
  [A] “Faith will move mountains.”
  [B] “One reaps what one sows.”
  [C] “Practice makes perfect.”
  [D] “Like fatherlike son
Text 2
   For the past several yearsthe Sunday newspaper supplement Parade has featured a column calledAsk Marilyn.” People are invited to query Marilyn vos Savantwho at age 10 had tested at a mental level of someone about 23 years oldthat gave her an IQ of 228-the highest score ever recorded. IQ tests ask you to complete verbal and visual analogiesto envision paper after it has been folded and cutand to deduce numerical sequencesamong other similar tasks. So it is a bit confusing when vos Savant fields such queries from the average Joewhose IQ is 100) asWhat's the difference between love and fondnessOr what is the nature of luck and coincidenceIt's not obvious how the capacity to visualize objects and to figure out numerical patterns suits one to answer questions that have eluded some of the best poets and philosophers.
   Clearlyintelligence encompasses more than a score on a test. Just what does it means to be smartHow much of intelligence can be specifiedand how much can we learn about it from neurologygeneticscomputer science and other fields
   The defining term of intelligence in humans still seems to be the IQ scoreeven though IQ tests are not given as often as they used to be. The test comes primarily in two formsthe Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scalesboth come in adult and children's version)。 Generally costing several hundred dollarsthey are usually given only by psychologistsalthough variations of them populate bookstores and the World Wide Web. Superhigh scores like vos Savants are no longer possiblebecause scoring is now based on a statistical population distribution among age pecksrather tan simply dividing the mental are by the chronological age and multiplying by 100. Other standardized testssuch as the Scholastic Assessment TestSATand the Graduate Record ExamGRE), capture the main aspects of IQ tests.
   Such standardized tests may not assess all the important elements necessary to succeed in school and in lifeargues Robert J. Sternberg. In his articleHow Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing?”。 Sternberg notes that traditional tests best assess analytical and verbal skills but fail to measure creativity and practical knowledgecomponents also critical to problem solving and life success. MoreoverIQ tests do not necessarily predict so well once populations or situations change. Research has found that IQ predicted leadership sills when the tests were given under low-stress conditionsbut under high-stress conditions. IQ was negatively correlated with leadership-that is it predicted the opposite. Anyone who bas toiled through SAT will testify that test-taking skill also matterswhether its knowing when to guess or what questions of skip.
   [451 words]

   26. Which of the following may be required in an intelligence test
   [A] Answering philosophical questions.
   [B] Folding or cutting paper into different shapes.
   [C] Telling the differences between certain concepts.
   [D] Choosing words or graphs similar to the given ones.

   27. What can be inferred about intelligence testing from Paragraph 3?
   [A] People no longer use IQ scores as an indicator of intelligence.
   [B] More versions of IQ tests are now available on the Internet.
   [C] The test contents and formats for adults and children may be different.
   [D] Scientists have defined the important elements of human intelligence.

   28. People nowadays can no longer achieve IQ scores as high as vos Savant's because
   [A] the scores are obtained through different computational procedures.
   [B] creativity rather than analytical skills is emphasized now.
   [C] vos Savant's case is an extreme one that will not repeat.
   [D] the defining characteristic of IQ tests has changed.

   29. We can conclude from the last paragraph that
   [A] test scores may not be reliable indicators of one's ability
   [B] IQ scores and SAT results are highly correlated.
   [C] testing involves a lot of guesswork.
   [D] traditional tests are out of date.

   30. What is the author's attitude towards IQ tests
   [A] Supportive.
   [B] Skeptical.
   [C] Impartial.
   [D] Biased#p#副标题#e#
Text 3
   During the past generationthe American middle-class family that once could count on hard work and fair play to keep itself financially secure has been transformed by economic risk and new realities. Now a pink slipa bad diagnosis. or a disappearing spouse can reduce a family from solidly middle class to newly poor in a few months.
   In just one generationmillions of mothers have gone to worktransforming basic family economics. Scholarspolicymakersand critics of all stripes have debated the social implications of these changesbut few have looked at the side effect family risk has risen as well. Today's families have budgeted to the limits of their new two-paycheck status. As a result they have lost the parachute they once had in times of financial setback- a back-up earnerusually Momwho could go into the workforce if the primary earner got laid off or fell sick. Thisadded-worker effectcould support the safety net offered by unemployment insurance or disability insurance to help families weather bad times. But todaya disruption to family fortunes can not longer be made up with extra income from an otherwise-stay-at-home partner.
   During the same periodfamilies have been asked to absorb much more risk in their retirement income. Steelworkersairline employeesand now those in the auto industry are joining millions of families who must worry about interest ratesstock market fluctuationand the harsh reality that they may outlive their retirement money. For much of the past year. President Bush campaigned to move Social Security to a savings-account modelwith retirees trading much or all of their guaranteed payments for payments depending on investment returns. For younger familiesthe picture is not any better. Both the absolute cost of healthcare and the share of it borne by families have risen-and newly fashionable health-savings plans are spreading from legislative halls to Wal-Mart workerswith much higher deductibles and a large new does of investment risk for familiesfuture healthcare. Even demographics are working against the middle class familyas the odds of having a weak elderly parent- and all the attendant need for physical and financial assistance have jumped eightfold in just one generation.
   From the middle-class family perspectivemuch of thisunderstandablylooks far less like an opportunity to exercise more financial responsibilityand a good deal more like a frightening acceleration of the wholesale shift of financial risk onto their already overburdened shoulders. The financial fallout has begunand the political fallout may not be far behind.
   [421 words]

   31. Today's double-income families are at greater financial risk in that
   [A] the safety net they used to enjoy has disappeared.
   [B] their chances of being laid off have greatly increased.
   [C] they are more vulnerable to changes in family economics.
   [D] they are deprived of unemployment or disability insurance.

   32. As a result of President Bush's reformretired people may have
   [A] a higher sense of security.
   [B] less secured payments.
   [C] less chance to invest.
   [D] a guaranteed future.

   33. According go the authorhealth-savings plans will
   [A] help reduce the cost of healthcare.
   [B] popularize among the middle class.
   [C] compensate for the reduced pensions.
   [D] increase the families investment risk.

   34. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that
   [A] financial risks tend to outweigh political risks.
   [B] the middle class may face greater political challenges.
   [C] financial problems may bring about political problems.
   [D] financial responsibility is an indicator of political status.

   35. Which of the following is the best title for this text
   [A] The Middle Class on the Alert
   [B] The Middle Class on the Cliff
   [C] The Middle Class in Conflict
   [D] The Middle Class in Ruins
Text 4
   It never rains but it pours. Just as bosses and boards have finally sorted out their worst accounting and compliance troublesand improved their feeble corporation governancea new problem threatens to earn them- especially in America-the sort of nasty headlines that inevitably lead to heads rolling in the executive suitedata insecurity. Leftuntil nowto oddlow-level IT staff to put rightand seen as a concern only of data-rich industries such as bankingtelecoms and air travelinformation protection is now high on the boss's agenda in businesses of every variety.
   Several massive leakages of customer and employee data this year- from organizations as diverse as Time Warnerthe American defense contractor Science Applications International Corp and even the University of California. Berkeley-have left managers hurriedly peering into their intricate 11 systems and business processes in search of potential vulnerabilities.
   “Data is becoming an asset which needs no be guarded as much as any other asset.” says I am Mendelson of Stanford University's business schoolThe ability guard customer data is the key to market valuewhich the board is responsible for on behalf of shareholdersIndeedjust as there is the concept of Generally Accepted Accounting PrinciplesGAAP). perhaps it is time for GASP. Generally Accepted Security Practicessuggested Eli Noam of New York's Columbia Business School. “Setting the proper investment level for securityredundancyand recovery is a management issuenot a technical one.” he says.
   The mystery is that this should come as a surprise to any boss. Surely it should be obvious to the dimmest exccutive that trustthat most valuable of economic assetsis easily destroyed and hugely expensive to restore-and that few things are more likely to destroy trust than a company letting sensitive personal data get into the wrong hands.
   The current state of affairs may have been encouraged-though not justified-by the lack of legal penaltyin Americabut not Europefor data leakage. Until California recently passed a law. American firms did not have to tell anyoneeven the victimwhen data went astrayI hat may change fast lots of proposed data-security legislation now doing the rounds in Washington. D.C. Meanwhile. the theft of information about some 40 million credit-card accounts in Americadisclosed on June 17th. overshadowed a hugely important decision a day earlier by America's Federal Trade CommissionFTCthat puts corporate America on notice that regulators will act if firms fail to provide adequate data security.
   [416 words]

   36. The statement: “It never rains but it poursis used to introduce
   [A] the fierce business competition.
   [B] the feeble boss-board relations
   [C] the threat from news reports.
   [D] the severity of data leakage.

   37. According to Paragraph 2, some organizations check their systems to find out
   [A] whether there is any weak point.
   [B] what sort of data has been stolen.
   [C] who is responsible for the leakage.
   [D] how the potential spies can be located.

   38. In bringing up the concept of GASP the author is making the point that
   [A] shareholders interests should be properly attended to.
   [B] information protection should be given due attention.
   [C] businesses should enhance their level of accounting security.
   [D] the market value of customer data should be emphasized.

   39. According to Paragraph 4, what puzzles the author is that some bosses fail to
   [A] see the link between trust and data protection.
   [B] perceive the sensitivity of personal data.
   [C] realize the high cost of data restoration.
   [D] appreciate the economic value of trust.

   40. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that
   [A] data leakage is more severe in Europe.
   [B] FTC's decision is essential to data security.
   [C] California takes the lead in security legislation.
   [D] legal penalty is a major Solomon to data leakage.
Part B
Directions
You are going to read a list of headings and a text about what parents are supposed to do to guide their children into adulthood. Choose a heading from the list A——G that best fits the meaning of each numbered part of the text (41——45)。 The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There are two extra headings that you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points
A. Set a Good Example for Your Kids
B. Build Your Kid's Work Skills
C. Place Time Limits on Leisure Activities
D. Talk about the Future on a Regular Basis
E. Help Kids Develop Coping Strategies
F. Help Your Kids Figure Out Who They Are
G. Build Your Kids Sense of Responsibility
How Can a Parent Help
Mothers and fathers can do a lot to ensure a safe landing in early adulthood for their kids. Even if a job's starting salary seems too small to satisfy an emerging adult's need for rapid contentthe transition from school to work can be less of a setback if the start-up adult is ready for the move. Here are a few measuresdrawn from my book Ready or NotHere Life Comesthat parents can take to prevent what I callwork-life unread ness”。
41.
You can start this process when they are 11 or 12. Periodically review their emerging strengths and weaknesses with them and work together on any shortcomings, like difficulty in communicating well or collaborating. Also, identify the kinds of interests they keep coming back to, as these offer clues to the careers that will fit them best.
42.
Kids need a range of authentic role models-as opposed to members of their clique, pop stars and vaunted athletes. Have regular dinner-table discussions about people the family knows and how they got where they are. Discuss the joys and downsides of your own career and encourage your kids to form some ideas about their own future. When asked what they want to do, they should be discouraged from sayingI have no idea.” They can change their minds 200 times, but having only a foggy view of the future is of little good.
43.
Teachers are responsible for teaching kids how to learnparents should e responsible for teaching them how to work. Assign responsibilities around the house and make sure homework deadlines are met. Encourage teenagers to take a part-time job Kids need plenty of practice delaying gratification and deploying effective organizational skills, such as managing time and setting priorities.
45.
They should know how to deal with setbacks, stresses and feelings of inadequacy. They should also learn how to solve problems and resolve conflicts, ways to brainstorm and think critically. Discussions at home can help kids practice doing these things and help them apply these skills to everyday life situations.
What about the son or daughter who is grown but seems to be struggling and wandering aimlessly through early adulthoodParents still have a major role to play, but now it is more delicate. They have to be careful not to come across as disappointed in their child. They should exhibit strong interest and respect for whatever currently interests their fledging adultas nave or ill conceived as it may seemwhile becoming a partner in exploring options for the future. Most of all, these new adults must fell that they are respected and supported by a family that appreciates them. #p#副标题#e#
Part C
Directions
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points
The study of law has been recognized for centuries as a basic intellectual discipline in European universities. However, only in recent years has it become a feature of undergraduate programs in Canadian universities. (46) Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person. Happily, the older and more continental view of legal education is establishing itself in a number of Canadian universities and some have even begun to offer undergraduate degrees in law.
If the study of law is beginning to establish itself as part and parcel of a general education, its aims and methods should appeal directly to journalism educators. Law is a discipline which encourages responsible judgment. On the one hand, it provides opportunities to analyze such ideas as justice, democracy and freedom. (47) On the other, it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news. For example, notions of evidence and fact, of basic rights and public interest are at work in the process of journalistic judgment and production just as in courts of law. Sharpening judgment by absorbing and reflecting on law is a desirable component of a journalist's intellectual preparation for his or her career.
(48) But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media. Politics or, more broadly, the functioning of the state, is a major subject for journalists. The better informed they are about the way the state works, the better their reporting will be. (49) In fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear preps of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution can do a competent job on political stories.
Furthermore, the legal system and the events which occur within it are primary subjects for journalists. While the quality of legal journalism varies greatly, there is an undue reliance amongst many journalists on interpretations supplied to them by lawyers. (50) While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories, it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgments. These can only come from a well-grounded understanding of the legal system.
Section III Writing
Part A
51. Directions
Write a letter to your university library, making suggestions for improving its service.
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. UseLi Minginstead.
Do not write the address. (10 points
Part B
52. Directions
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
1) describe the drawing briefly,
2) explain its intended meaning, and then
3) support your view with an example/ examples.
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points
Section I Use of English
1.B 2. D 3. C 4. A 5. C 6. D 7. C 8. C 9. B 10. C
11. C 12. D 13.A 14. D 15. C 16. D 17.B 18. D 19. C 20.D
Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
21.C 22.B 23.D 24.D 25.C 26.D 27.C 28.A 29.A 30.B 31.C 32.B 33.D 34.C 35.B 36.D 37.A 38.B 39.A 40.D
Part B
41.F 42.D 43.B 44.C 45.E
Part C
46、一直以来,在这些大学里,法律知识的学习看作是律师的专属,而不是受教育人士必备知识的一部分。
47、另一方面,以类似记者在每天采访和评论新闻时炮制联系的方式,法律把这些概念(公正、民主和自由)和日常实践联系在一起。
48、但是,记者必须比普通公民更为深刻地理解法律,这种说法是基于对新闻媒体的既定常规和特殊职责的理解。
49、事实上,我们很难想象,对加拿大宪法的基本特征缺乏清楚把握的记者如何能胜任政治方面的报道。
50、尽管律师的意见和态度可能会增加报道的深度,但记者最好还是应该依靠自己的理解并做出自己的判断。 #p#副标题#e#
  
Writing
January 20th, 2007
Dear Sir or Madam,
Im a student in the university and a loyal reader of this library. Im writing to tell some of my ideas, which I hope to be helpful for you.
I notice that many magazines in our library are out of date. It would be beneficial to us students if they could be updated in time. And I suggest introducing some new journals so as to bring new fresh air to the library. Furthermore, since we have a huge number of books, it is not easy to find the right one easily. However, if we can introduce some new searching means, such as implementing new information management system that would be useful.
Thank you for taking time reading this letter and Im looking forward to seeing some new changes soon.
Sincerely Yours,
Li Ming
 As can be seen from the cartoon, different ideas may come from the same thing. In the picture, while trying to catch the upcoming soccer, the goal-keeper says to himself why it is so big. And, the striker simply thinks in a different way, that is why it is so small?!
What makes such a big contrary on the same tournament at the same moment? It is no doubt that they are facing the very same goal and experiencing the very same moment. However, the subjective views result in different impression on the same object. Many of us may still remember the story of a pony crossing the river, which we learned from the textbook in primary school. The squirrel tells him, the river is deep; and the cow tells him, the river is not deep at all. However, in the end, he tells himself a third answer. Therefore, it is not exaggerating to say that most of us are looking into the world with personal ideas. Subjective mental status may result in a really big difference in personal views, just like the goal-keeper and the striker in the drawing.
A possible solution might be to face any situation as objectively as possible. If we realize this in an objective way, it would be good for us to deal with what we encounter in life, especially when we are in setbacks or facing difficulties.
 




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