CATTI2003年12月英语二级口译综合能力试题及答案

来源:网络 2019-01-29

2003 年12 月英语二级口译综合能力试题

试题部分:

Test for Interpreters of Level 2

English Language Skills

Transcripts for the Recorded Passages

Part I

Listen to the short passages and then decide whether the corresponding

statements below are true or false. After hearing a short passage, blacken the circle ofTrueon the answer sheet below if you think the statement is true, or blacken the circle forFalseif it is false. There are ten questions in this part of the test, twp points for each question.

1. In a series of radio broadcasts, Arnold Schwargenegger, the actor-turned-candidate-for-governor, staked out some middle ground on social issues, taking positions that might alienate his conservative fellow Republicans but match the views of a majority of Californians.

2. Early onset of depression in children and teens is increasingly common. Depressed adolescents are at high risk for school failure, social isolation, promiscuity, “self-medication,” and even suicidethe third leading cause of death among 15- to 24-year-olds.

3. Cheliean sea bass is a snow-white, flaky delicacy in restaurants in the United States, Japan and Europe. Environmentalists have warned that over-fishing and poaching could cause it to vanish from the coasts of Antarctica.

4. In western Sweden, a five-year-old girl was abducted and stabbed to death last week by an inmate from a psychiatric institute who was able to come and go at will in part because the cost of looking after such patients in this cradle-to-grave welfare state is becoming too high.

5. While women make up half the 325 million people in the Middle East and North Africa, and in some countries as many as 63 percent of university students, they comprise only 32 percent of the labor force, according to a World Bank report released on the eve of its annual meeting with the International Monetary Fund.

6. The United States on Tuesday vetoed a UN Security Council resolution, backed by Islamic and nonaligned nations, demanding that Israel back off its threat to deport the Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. Eleven Council members voted in favor of the measure, while Britain, Germany and Bulgaria abstained.

7. Toyota Motor, having topped Daimler-Chryslers American unit in sales for the first time last month, may be poised to dethrone Ford Motor as the worlds second-biggest automaker within two years. It has gained market share since the 1970s, in part by improving the quality of the vehicles it makes. That is reflected in higher customer satisfaction ratings and fewer defects.

8. In Jerusalem, where responding to terror attacks has become a grim medical specialty, Dr. David Applebaum was known as thefirst man on the scene”. He spent years dashing to the bomb sites to treat the wounded, and was an innovator in emergency medical services that are called into action all too often in the city.

9. The Chinese currency, the yuan, is not a free-floating currency like the Japanese yen but is pegged to the US dollar. Its value is therefore essentially unchanged. Beijing is not expected to change this system in the near term, in part because officials there fear that a move now towards free-floating currency could destabilize the countrys economy and financial system.

10. Ben Glisan Jr., a former treasurer of Enron, has pleaded guilty to a federal charge that he committed securities and wire fraud, making him the highest-ranking former Enron executive to admit wrongdoing in the accounting scandal that drove the energy company into bankruptcy.

Part II Listen to the following short passages and then choose one of the answers that best fits the meaning of each passage by blackening the corresponding circle. There are ten passages in this part of the test, with one question each, which carries two points.

11. As Chinas vast interior gets richer, Grenda Lee, Coco-Colas Shanghai-based director of  external affairs, finds herself dreaming about tapping the countrys rural market. Chinese  peasants account for roughly 70 percent of Chinas 1.3 billion people, but on average each  drinks only three Coke products a year. That compares with some 60 drinks consumed annually  in Shanghai and Beijing, 150 in Hong Kong and 420 in the United States. With so many  customers at stake, potential profits take on epic scale.

12. Withfractional ownership,” the participants actually own a percentage of a jet planesuper-yacht, Old Master painting or a second home, not just the right to use it for a specified  amount of time. They enjoy all the benefits of ownership without paying an astronomical price  for something they use only occasionally. And, they are able to afford a bigger, better yachthelicopter or home than they could have bought outright.

13. The evolution of technology is showing no signs of maturing whatsoever. If you look at  nanomaterials or photonics, carbon nanotubes, all the things that are going on in new types of  energy, environmentally better materialstheres no shortage of new technology coming. It is  nowhere near maturity. Certainly, theres consolidation among business models and competitorsbut it doesnt have the telltale signs of a mature industry where theres no innovation.

14. Parkinsons disease can cause a weird variety of different symptoms in different people. The  two most common are uncontrollable shaking on the one hand, or rigidity on the other. Balance  problems are also frequent. The stranger symptoms can include difficulty going through  doorways and deciding what to eat for dinner.

15. The global steel industry is in a mess. Overcapacity and weak demand have hurt producers. In  2002, 847 million tons of steel was produced, but consumption was only 765 million tons. Steel  makers have responded by consolidating. Last year in Europe, for example, Arcelor, the worlds  biggest producer, was formed from a three-way merger of Spains Aceralia, Frances Usinor and  Arbed, a Luxemburg-based company.

16. In any movie theater any summer, you can practically hear the atrophying of brain cellsSummer pictures dont insult the audiences intelligence so much as they ignore it, playing  instead to the mass-market inner child. But with most big films serving as a form of  pop-cultural potty training, theres a grand void to be filled for viewers who have not sent their  brains to summer campwho want the occasional film to speak to their inner grownup.

17. Political tourism first took off in the 1980s, when activists, angry at the United States for  propping up Central American dictators, began flocking to countries like Nicaragua and  Honduras to see the result themselves. Groups such as the London-based Nicaragua Solidarity  Network were only too happy to accommodate them. After returning home, activist tourists  tended to take like-minded compatriots back to the region to express solidarity with a  movement, act as international observers or simply educate foreigners on the consequences of  cold-war policies.

18. Human cloning involves creating an embryo out of a cell taken from a fully developed human  being. “Reproductivecloning means growing an embryo into a second, genetically identical  human being. “Therapeuticcloning, by contrast, means using an embryo as a source of stem  cells for the person who supplied the originally cell. The theory is that stem cells with DNA  identical to yours would be more likely to develop successfully into replacement parts for youBrain cells for people with Parkinsons are the most promising example, but ultimately even  severed limbs might grow back this way.

19. The disappointing ministerial conference that concluded in Cancun, Mexico in September will  have many ramifications, but sadly the most significant of them will be its impact on poor  countries. A more open and equitable trading system would provide them with an important tool  in alleviating poverty and raising their levels of economic development.

20. It takes only a trip on the busy but rutted highway that leads north from here to understand  how a huge swath of the Amazon jungle could have been razed over the course of just a yearWhere the jungle once offered shelter to jaguars, parrots and deer, the land is now increasingly  being cleared for soybeans, Brazils hottest cash crop.

Part III Listen to the following longer passages and then choose the best answer to each of the questions by blackening the corresponding circle. You may need to scribble a few notes in order to answer the questions satisfactorily. There are 20 questions in this part of the test, two points for each question.

#p#副标题#e#

 

Passage One

In early September, Trinidads state-owned sugar company made all of its 9,200 employees  redundant. Though most are Indo-Trinidadians and supporters of the islands truculent opposition  party, there were no protests. The workers got redundancy pay totaling 115 million dollars, the  offer of retraining, and the chance to continue growing cane as independent farmers in plots on the  companys 31,000 hectares of farmland.

Trinidad, booming on oil and gas, has plenty of new jobs. Jamaicas stagnant economy is  another story. The government privatized its sugar factories in 1994, but agreed to take them back  four years later. Hit by floods and droughts, this years sugar crop was a disaster. A shutdown  might be greeted with riots by the 7,000 sugar workers and 8,000 cane farmers of the countryBarbados, prosperous and stable, has a different problem. Its neat cane fields are far more  attractive to tourists than the eroded scrubland of Antigua, which stopped growing sugar 30 years  ago.

21. What is the most appropriate title for the passage?

22. Which of the following statements is not true of Trinidadian workers who were made jobless in early September?
 
23. What happened to Jamaicas sugar factories in the 1990s?

24. What is happening to Barbadoss sugar industry?

25. Which of the following statements best summarizes the main idea of the passage?

Passage Two

China and India have roughly the same population, but when it comes to mobile phonesthere is no comparison between the two. In India, seven years after the launch of mobile-phone  services, there are only 10 million users. In China, half that number signs up as new subscribers  every month.

Geography and culture explain some of the differences. The concentration of economic  activity in Chinas eastern coastal region gave its mobile operators big economies of scaleallowing lower prices. In China, telephones quickly came to be regarded as fashion itemssomething that has only recently happened to India.

But the main difference is regulation. India chose a licensing policy that divided the  country into 22 regions, each with two licenses to operate mobile networks. Bidding in multiple  regions was restricted. This aimed to promote competition, but led to a fragmented market with a  baffling array of operators, none of which has economies of scale. Limited spectrum also hurt  service quality.

26. Which is the most appropriate title for the passage?

27. According to the writer of this article, how many people sign up as new mobile phone subscribers in China every month?

28. Why are the prices of mobile telephone services lower in Chinas eastern coastal region?

29. Why are mobile phones popular in China, according to the speaker?

30. How does the speaker feel about the regulation of mobile services in India?

Passage Three

Dyslexia is a term used to describe a marked difficulty in learning to read despite normal  intelligence and vision. The problem is universal, but research suggests it doesnt affect every  culture or language group equally. On Chinas mainland and in Japan, for example, dyslexia rates  are estimated at less than 5 percent compared to 10 percent to 20 percent in the U.S. There are  intriguing theories as to why, and Japan has produced some important cluesJapanese children first learn to read and write in parallel phonetic alphabets, hiragana and  katakana, each containing 46 characters relating to 46 different sounds. After conquering them, the  student embarks on learning Chinese characters. According to Uno, who works for Japans  National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, just 1 percent of Japanese students have dyslexic  problems in reading the phonetic alphabets, while 2 percent encounter problems with Chinese  characters. The numbers jump a bit when it comes to writing—2 percent for hiragana, 3.8 percent  for katakana and 5 percent for ideogramsbut theyre still low by American standards.

31. The passage is about

32. Which of the following statements is true of dyslexia?

33. Which of the following countries is most affected with dyslexia according to the passage?

34. Which of the following is not true of the Japanese language?

35. What can be inferred from the passage?

#p#副标题#e#

 

Passage Four

Stocks can be divided into two categories: those for trading and those for investingWithin trading stocks, you make money by figuring out whether other traders will keep buying or  start selling the stock and positioning yourself accordingly for a few weeks or even days. By  contrast, with investing stocks you aim to buy into a company at an attractive price, given the  worth of its assets and likely future profits, regardless of when the value will be recognized by the  market. This way, you can steer clear of overpaying for fashionable dogs.

Theres nothing revolutionary about this strategy, of course. Its just a question of calmly  mixing and matching some old, and apparently somewhat contradictory, stock market wisdom and applying it to a hot market. About 70 years ago, British economist John Maynard Keynes said  investors should view the market as a beauty contest, and they should mainly buy trading stocks  that other people would find attractive. Benjamin Graham, the father of modern securities analysisbristled at that idea. He lamented that stock buyers, though almost always called investors, are  often actually speculators. Instead, he preached that they should make a hard-nosed assessment of the inherent value of companies and search out investing stocks.

36. What is the most appropriate title for this passage?

37. Which of the following statements is true of John Maynard Keynes?

38. How did Benjamin Graham view stock investment?

39. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

40. The speaker presents the passage by the following logic:

Part IV Listen to the following passage about new technology and its impact on the changes in universities. Write a short summary of around 150-200 words of what you have heard. This part of the test carries 20 points.

Our society is now being reshaped by rapid advances in information technologies  —computers, telecommunications networks, and other digital systemsthat have vastly increased  our capacity to know, achieve, and collaborate. These technologies allow us to transmit  information quickly and widely, linking distant places and diverse areas of endeavor in productive  new ways, and to create communities that just a decade ago were unimaginable.

Of course, our society has been through other periods of dramatic change before, driven by  such innovations as the steam engine, railroad, telephone, and automobile. But never before have  we experienced technologies that are evolving so rapidly (increasing in power by a hundredfold  every decade), altering the constraints of space and time, and reshaping the way we communicatelearn and think.
 
The rapid evolution of digital technologies is creating not only new opportunities for our  society, but also challenges to it as well, and institutions of every stripe are grappling to respond  by adapting their strategies and activities. Corporations and governments are reorganizing to  enhance productivity, improve quality, and control costs. Entire industries have been restructured  to better align themselves with the realities of the digital age. It is no great exaggeration to say that  information technology is fundamentally changing the relationship between people and  knowledge.

Yet ironically, at the most knowledge-based entities of allour colleges and universities  —the pace of transformation has been relatively modest in key areas. Although research has in  many ways been transformed by information technology, and it is increasingly used for student  and faculty communications, other higher-education functions have remained more or less  unchanged. Teaching, for example, largely continues to follow a classroom-centered, seat-based  paradigm.

Nevertheless, some major technology-aided teaching experiments are beginning to emergeand several factors suggest that digital technologies may eventually drive significant changes  throughout academia. Because these technologies are expanding by orders of magnitude our  ability to create, transfer, and apply information, they will have a profound impact on how  universities define and fulfill their missions. In particular, the ability of information technology to  facilitate new forms of human interaction may allow the transformation of universities toward a  greater focus on learning.

Already, higher education has experienced significant technology-based change, particularly in research, even though it presently lags other sectors in some respects. And we expect that the new technology will eventually also have a profound impact on one of the universitys primary activitiesteachingby freeing the classroom from its physical and temporal bounds and by providing students with access to original source materials. The situations that students will encounter as citizens and professionals can increasingly be simulated and modeled for teaching and learning, and new learning communities driven by information technology will allow universities to better teach students how to be critical analyzers and consumers of information.

#p#副标题#e#

 

答题纸:

Test for Interpreters of Level 2

English Language Skills

Answer Sheet

Part I

Listen to the short passages and then decide whether the corresponding statements below are true or false. After hearing a short passage, blacken the circle ofTrueon the answer sheet below if you think the statement is true, or blacken the circle forFalseif it is false. There are ten questions in this part of the test, twp points for each question.

1. The movie actor Arnold Schwargenegger, who is running for governor of California, belongs to the conservative Democratic Party.
True
False

2. School failure and social isolation can lead to early onset of depression in children and teens, and the trend is becoming increasingly common.
True
False

3. According to the statement, Cheliean sea bass, a species of fish available along the coasts of the South Pole, might have already become extinct due to illegal hunting.
True
False

4. It can be inferred from the statement that the Swedish social welfare system, which provides life-long care of its citizens, is no longer feasible and satisfactory.
True
False

5. Out of the 325 million laborers in the Middle East and North Africa, 63 percent are women and 32 percent university students.
True
False

6. According to the statement, the UN Security Council resolution concerning Israel and Yasser Arafat was presented by the United States and approved by 11 Council members including Britain, Germany and Bulgaria.
True
False

7. Toyota Motor now ranks as the worlds second largest automobile manufacturers owing to its improved quality and enlarged market share.
True
False

8. It is reasonable to assume that demand for sophisticated emergency medical treatment is higher in Jerusalem, where terrorist bomb attacks were frequent incidents.
True
False
9. As a free-floating currency, Japanese yen often fluctuates with the US dollar, and destabilizes the countrys economy and financial system.
True
False

10. Ben Glisan Jr. is the highest-ranking executive of the Enron company found to be guilty for the accounting scandal.
True
False

Part II Listen to the following short passages and then choose one of the answers that best fits the meaning of each passage by blackening the corresponding circle. There are ten passages in this part of the test, with one question each, which carries two points.

11. The annual consumption of Coco-Cola per capita in the regional markets mentioned in the passage ranks in the following order.

a.Rural China, Beijing, the United States, Hong Kong.
b. Beijing, the United States, Rural China, Hong Kong.
c.The United States, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Rural China.
d. Shanghai, Rural China, the United States, Hong Kong.

12 Which of the following statements is not true offractional ownership”?
a.“Fractional ownershipallows people share the use of highly expensive commodities.
b. Thanks tofractional ownership,” people can afford luxuries like a super yacht.
c.“Fractional ownershipis identical totime sharing”.
d. “Fractional ownershipmeans part of the property right to the buyer.

13. What is the point the speaker is trying to make about technology development?
a.A mature technology requires less innovation.
b. Technical evolution is close to maturation in certain fields.
c.New types of energy are expected to mature in the near future.
d. Nanomaterials or photonics and carbon nanotubes are environmentally friendly.

14. Which of the following statements is true of the Parkinsons disease?
a.Parkinsons always shows the same symptoms on different people.
b. People inflicted with Parkinsons often have a shaking hand or a stiff hand.
c. The symptoms of Parkinsons vary among different patients.
d. Victims of Parkinsons find it difficult to recall what they have eaten for dinner.

15. Which of the following is true of world steel production?
a.The steel industry still has a bright prospect on a global scene.
b. Steel consumption in the world registered a drastic cut.
c.Steel makers are drastically cutting down their production.
d. Better promotion is needed for improving sales of steel products.

16. What does the speaker feel about summer pictures?
a.Summer films might cause mental damage to the audience.
b. Summer films need to give due respect to the audiences intelligence.
c. Summer films should cater to both children and grownups.
d. Summer films should not target at the mass-market.

17. Which of the following makes the most appropriate title for the passage?
a.Cold-War Policies and the Tourism Industry.
b. The Characteristics of Political Tourism.
c.The Rise of Political Tourism.
d. The Latest Developments of Political Tourism.

18. Which of the following statement is not true of therapeutic cloning?
a. “Therapeuticcloning is used mainly for research purposes and therefore should be allowed to continue.
b. “Therapeuticcloning is used for medical purposes and not for reproducing full human beings.
c. “Therapeuticcloning is used for replacing the diseased parts of human organs.
d. Brain cell can be used in the future to cure the Parkinsons disease.

19. Which of the following statement is closest in meaning to the passage you have just heard?
a. The WTO ministerial conference held at Cancun is disappointing because the poor countries could not participate in the event.
b. The Cancun ministerial meeting was intended to create a more open and equitable trading system.
c. The main objective of the Cancun conference was to help the poorest countries in the world to develop their economy.
d. Opening up the market in poor countries would have a negative impact on their national economic development.

20. What has happened to the Amazon jungle?
a.Highways have been constructed through the jungle to help ease the traffic in the cities.
b. Jaguars, parrots and deer that once inhabited the jungle have left because the place was getting too hot for them.
c.The land has been cleared for growing soybeans because it is the most popular Brazilian food.
d. Fast economic development has brought devastating changes to the natural environment in Brazil.

Part III Listen to the following longer passages and then choose the best answer to each of the questions by blackening the corresponding circle. You may need to scribble a few notes in order to answer the questions satisfactorily. There are 20 questions in this part of the test, two points for each question.

#p#副标题#e#

 

Passage One

21. What is the most appropriate title for the passage?
a.The Future of Sugar Industry in Central America
b. Unemployment in Latin America
c.Reforms in Sugar Industry in North America.
d. The Impact of the Declining Sugar Industry

22. Which of the following statements is not true of Trinidadian workers who were made jobless in early September?
a.They held protests against the government on the street.
b.They became independent cane farmers.
c.They were compensated with a total of 115 million dollars.
d.They were given the chance of retraining for new job careers.

23. What happened to Jamaicas sugar factories in the 1990s?
a.They witnessed unsuccessful reforms.
b.They went bankrupt due to crop failure.
c.They suffered from inefficient production.
d.They failed due to a shortage of labor supply.

24. What is happening to Barbadoss sugar industry?
a.It is prosperous and stable.
b.It has vast expanses of deserted cane fields.
c.It uses cane fields as tourist attractions.
d.It stopped growing sugar 30 years ago.

25. Which of the following statements best summarizes the main idea of the passage?
a.The sugar industry varies in prosperity among producing countries in Latin America.
b. World sugar producers all suffer from short supply of canes.
c. The world sugar industry is undergoing fatal depression.
d. Major sugar producers have adopted different strategies to combat the sluggish
economy.

Passage Two

26. Which is the most appropriate title for the passage?
a.A Comparative Study of the Telecom Industry in China and India
b.Differences on Use of Mobile Phones in China and India
c.Geographical and Cultural Differences between China and India
d.Different Regulations on Mobile Phones in China and India

27. According to the writer of this article, how many people sign up as new mobile phone
subscribers in China every month?
a.10 million.
b.7 million.
c.5 million.
d.22 million

28. Why are the prices of mobile telephone services lower in Chinas eastern coastal region?
a.The average disposable income is lower in the region.
b.The GDP is higher in the region.
c.The costs of operators are lower due to a greater number of users of mobile phone services in the region.
d.The operators compete with each other in order to win over subscribers.

29. Why are mobile phones popular in China, according to the speaker?
a.They are considered as fashionable items.
b.They keep people closer to each other.
c.They are more convenient to users than fixed phones.
d.They are considered time-saving devices.

30. How does the speaker feel about the regulation of mobile services in India?
a.It has produced desired effects.
b.It has more advantages than disadvantages.
c.It helps promote competition..
d.It has created a negative impact in the market.

#p#副标题#e#

 

Passage Three

31. The passage is about

a.dyslexia and intelligence
b. dyslexia and culture
c.dyslexia and vision
d. dyslexia and personality

32. Which of the following statements is true of dyslexia?
a.It is a worldwide problem.
b.It is a regional problem.
c.It is a social problem.
d.It is a biological problem.

33. Which of the following countries is most affected with dyslexia according to the passage?
a.China
b.Japan
c.U.S.A
d.U.K.

34. Which of the following is not true of the Japanese language?
a.It is divided into two types of phonetic alphabets.
b.It contains more katakana than hiragana.
c.Hiragana and katakana have the same number of sounds and characters.
d.It includes Chinese characters.
35.What can be inferred from the passage?
a.There is no obvious reason for the unbalanced distribution of dyslexia in the world.
b.The existing theories about dyslexia are solid and conclusive.
c.There are underlying reasons for the differences with dyslexic problems with different peoples.
d.The relatively lower number of its people suffering from dyslexia in Japan may be attributed to its reading and writing system.

Passage Four

36. What is the most appropriate title for this passage?
a.Two Types of Stocks
b. A New Strategy of Investment
c.Distinctions between Trading and Investment
d. Conflicting Perspectives on Stock Investment

37. Which of the following statements is true of John Maynard Keynes?
a.He liked to attend beauty contests.
b.He would keep on buying and selling hot stocks.
c.He often bought in stocks of lesser companies.
d.He preferred investing stocks to trading stocks.

38. How did Benjamin Graham view stock investment?
a.He believed that both trading stocks and investing stocks are risky.
b.He regarded investing stocks equally risky as trading stocks.
c.He insisted that trading stocks were less valuable than investing stocks.
d.He compared hot stocks to fashionable dogs.

39. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
a.An investor of trading stocks only cares about the fixed assets of companies.
b.A buyer of investing stocks is always concerned about the performance of companies.
c.Most people keep their investing stocks for a longer period of time.
d.All people buy trading stocks and investing stock at the same time.

40. The speaker presents the passage by the following logic:
a.Induction
b.Deduction
c.Cause and Effect
d.Comparison and Contrast

Part IV Listen to the following passage about new technology and its impact on the
changes in universities. Write a short summary of around 150-200 words of what
you have heard. This part of the test carries 20 points.

#p#副标题#e#

 

答案部分:

Test for Interpreters of Level 2
English Language Skills
Keys

Part I   (20 points, 2 points X 10)
 1. False     2. False     3. False 6. False     7. False     8. True 4. True 9. False 5. False 10. False

Part II   (20 points, 2 points X 10)
11. c  12. c   13. a   14. c   15. b  16. b 17. c   18. a   19. b 20. d

Part III (40 points, 2 points X 20)
Passage One  21. d      22. a   23. a   24. c

Passage Two
25. d  26. b  27. c 28. c 29. a 30. d

Passage Three

31. b 32. a 33. c 34. b 35. d

Passage Four

36. d  37. b

 

 

Part IV
-6(20 points)
38. a
39. c
40. d

Our society is now being reshaped by rapid advances in information technologiescomputerstelecommunications networks, and other digital systemsthat have vastly increased our capacity  to know, achieve, and collaborate      . These technologies allow us to transmit information quickly  and widely, linking distant places and diverse areas of endeavor in productive new ways, and to  create communities that just a decade ago were unimaginable.

Of course, our society has been through other periods of dramatic change before, driven by  such innovations as the steam engine, railroad, telephone, and automobile. But never before have  we experienced technologies that are evolving so rapidly (increasing in power by a hundredfold  every decade), altering the constraints of space and time, and reshaping the way we communicatelearn and think.

The rapid evolution of digital technologies is creating not only new opportunities for our  society, but also challenges to it as well , and institutions of every stripe are grappling to respond  by adapting their strategies and activities. Corporations and governments are reorganizing to  enhance productivity, improve quality, and control costs. Entire industries have been restructured  to better align themselves with the realities of the digital age. It is no great exaggeration to say that  information technology is fundamentally changing the relationship between people and  knowledge.

Yet ironically, at the most knowledge-based entities of allour colleges and universities—  the pace of transformation has been relatively modest in key areas  . Although research has in many  ways been transformed by information technology, and it is increasingly used for student and  faculty communications, other higher-education functions have remained more or less unchangedTeaching, for example, largely continues to follow a classroom-centered, seat-based paradigmNevertheless, some major technology-aided teaching experiments are beginning to emergeand several factors suggest that digital technologies may eventually drive significant change  throughout academia. Because these technologies are expanding by orders of magnitude our  ability to create, transfer, and apply information, they will have a profound impact on how  universities define and fulfill their missions. In particular, the ability of information technology to  facilitate new forms of human interaction may allow the transformation of universities toward a  greater focus on learning.

Already, higher education has experienced significant technology-based change, particularly  in research, even though it presently lags other sectors in some respects. And we expect that the  new technology will eventually also have a profound impact on one of the universitys primary  activitiesteachingby freeing the classroom from its physical and temporal bounds and by  providing students with access to original source materials. The situations that students will  encounter as citizens and professionals can increasingly be simulated and modeled for teaching  and learning, and new learning communities driven by information technology will allow  universities to better teach students how to be critical analyzers and consumers of information.




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