SECTION 1: LISTENING TEST (30 minutes)
In this part of the test, you will hear a passage and read the same passage with blanks in it. Fill in each of the blanks with the word or words you have heard on the tape. Write your
answer in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET. Remember you will hear the
passage ONLY ONCE.
Part A: Spot Dictation
For more than two centuries, America!ˉs collegesand universities have been the backbone of the country's progress. They have educated the technical, _______ (1) work force and provided generation after generation of national leaders. Today, educators from around the country are apt to find many reasons for the _______ (2). But four historic acts stand out as watersheds:First, _______ (3): In 1862, Congress enacted the Land-Grant College Act, which essentially extended the opportunity of higher education to all Americans, including _______ (4). Each state was permitted to sell large tracts of federal land, and use the proceeds to endow at least _______ (5). Second, competition breeds success. Over the years, the _______ (6) of the America!ˉs colleges and universities have promoted _______ (7). Competitive pressure first arose during the Civil War when President Lincoln created _______ (8) to advise Congress on any subject of science and art. The Academy's impact really grew after World War when a landmark report _______ (9) the then president argued that it was the federal government!ˉ responsibility to _______ (10) for basic research. Instead of being centralized in government laboratories,_______ (11) in American universities and generated increasing investment. It also _______ (12) and helped spread scientific discoveries far and wide, _______ (13), medicine and society as a whole. Thirdly, _______ (14): The end of World War saw the passage of the Servicemen!ˉs Readjustment Act of 1944. The law, which provided for a college or vocational education _______ (15), made the higher-education system accessible in ways that _______ (16), opening the doors of best universities to men and women who had _______ (17). Finally, promoting diversity: The creation of federal______(18) as well as outright grants for college students brought much needed diversity to higher education and further_______ (19).
Since its founding in 1965, the Federal Family Education Loan Program has funded more than 74 million student loans worth _______ (20).
Part B: Listening Comprehension
Directions: In this part of the test there will be some short talks and conversations. After each one, you will be asked some questions. The talks, conversations and questions will be spoken ONLY ONCE. Now listen carefully and choose the right answer to each question you have heard and write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
1. ( A) She’s just a city girl and i used to the fast pace of the city.
(B) She doesn't haveto drive everywhere to buy things.
(C) She likes to garden and putter around in the house she bought.
(D) She can go to a whole variety of places to interact with people.
2. (A) Going to the country for a vacation makes no sense at all.
(B) Renting a vacation house in the country is cheap.
(C) People can enjoy the fresh air in the country.
(D) People can relax better in the country than in the city.
3. (A) The convenient transportation.
(B) The interactive social life.
(C) The whole car culture.
(D) The nice neighborhood.
4. (A) You may have fun making barbecues in the garden.
(B) You won’t feel stuk and labeled as you do in the city.
(C) It’s more tolrable than living in the city.
(D) It’s more hatful than living in the country.
5. (A) Quite lonely.
(B) Very safe.
(C) Not very convenient.
(D) Not particularly dangerous.
6. (A) Because they might harm the poor people.
(B) Because their drawbacks outweigh benefits.
(C) Because they counterbalance other environmental policies.
7. (A) German business confidence index has risen as much as expected recently.
(B) The outlook for manufacturing is worsening in foreseeable future.
(C) Global economic recession will sap demand for German exports next year.
(D) German business situation is expected to get better in the next few months.
8. (A) The proposal can cut greenhouse gas emissions from cars to a very low level.
(B) This action is obviously going to change global temperatures in the long run.
(C) The reduction in gas emissions is insignificant for addressing global warming.
(D) The proposal represents a big step in solving the problem of global warming.
9. (A) $ 60.5 a barrel.
(B) $ 61 a barrel.
(C) $ 61.32 a barrel.
(D) $ 61.67 a barrel.
10. (A) 92.
11. (A) Microsoft.
(B) Coca Cola.
12. (A) Amounts of revenue underlying the brands.
(B) Strong franchise with consumers.
(C) Whether or not the brand is a product of a tech company.
(D) The degree of resonance consumers have with a brand proposition.
13. (A) Because it is monopolistic.
(B) Because it is competitive.
(C) Because it takes its brand through generations.
(D) Because its products fetch high prices.
14. (A) The functionality of its product.
(B) The emotional appeal of its product.
(C) Its basic product being so different.
(D) Its highly effective publicity.
15. (A) A fantastic corporate culture.
(B) A long company history.
(C) An excellent product.
(D) A sophisticated technology.
16. (A) A power station.
(B) An importer of bicycles.
(C) An association of volunteers.
(D) A charity organization.
17. (A) To provide help to local villagers.
(B) To export bicycles to developing countries.
(C) To organize overseas trips.
(D) To carry out land surveys.
18. (A) They sell them at a very low price.
(B) They charge half price.
(C) They give them away for free.
(D) They trade them for local products.
19. (A) 14,000.
20. (A) Donating bicycles.
(B) Bringing in funds.
(C) Taking part in bike rides.
(D) Making suggestions about where to send bicycles.
SECTION 2: READING TEST (30 minutes)
Directions: In this section you will read several passages. Each one is followed by several questions about it. You are to choose ONE best answer, (A), (B), (C) or (D), to each question. Answer all the questions following each passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage and write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
Talk about timing. Your question arrived in our in-box the same day that we received a note from an acquaintance who had just been let go from his job in publishing, certainly one of the industries that is facing, as you put it, “extreme changes.” He described his layoff as a practically Orwellian experience in which he was ushered into a conference room to meet with an outplacement consultant who, after dispensing with logistics, informed him that she would call
him at home that evening to make sure everything was all right.
“I assured her I had friends and loved ones and a dog,” he wrote, “and since my relationship wither could be measured in terms of seconds, they could take care of that end of things.” “Memo to HR: Instead of saddling dismissed employees with solicitous outplacement reps,” he noted wryly,“put them in a room with some crockery for a few therapeutic minutes of smashing things against a wall.”
While we enjoy our friend’s sense of humor, we’d suggest a different memo to HR. “Layoffs are your moment of truth,” it would say, “when yo company must show departing employees the same kind of attentiveness and dignity that was showered upon them when they entered. Layoffs are when HR proves its mettle and its worth, demonstrating whether a company really cares about its people.
Look, we’ve written before about HR and te game-changing role we believe it can and would play as the engine of an organization’hiring, appraisal, and development processes. We’ve asserted that too many comanies relegate HR to the mundane busy-work of newsletters, picnics, and benefits, and we’ve made the case tat every CEO should elevate his head of HR to the same stature as the CFO. But if there was ever a time to underscore the importance of HR, it has arrived. And, sadly, if there was ever a time to see how few companies get HR right, it has arrived, too, as our acquaintance’s experience shows.So, to your question: What is HR’s correc role now’daespecially in terms of layoffs
First, HR has to make sure people are let go by their managers, not strangers. Being fired is dehumanizing in any event, but to get the news from a “hired gun” only makes matters worse That’s why HR must ensure that managers accpt their duty, which is to be in on the one conversation at work that must be personal. Pink slips should be delivered face-to-face, eyeball-to-eyeball.Second, HR’s role is to serve a the company’s arbiter of equiy. Nothing raises hackles more
during a layoff than the sense that some people’danamely the loudmouths and the litigious’s getting better deals than others. HR can mitigate that dynamic by making sure across units and divisions that severance arrangements, if they exist, are appropriate and evenhanded. You simply don’t want people to leave feelingas if they got you-know-what. They need to walk out saying: “At least I know i was treated fairly. Finally, HR’s role is to absorbpain. In the hours and days after being let go, people need to vent, and it is HR’s job to be completely availableto console. At some point, all outplacement consultant can come into the mix to assist with a transition, but HR can never let “the departed’s feel as if they’ve been sentto a leper colony. Someone connected to each let-go employee’s a either a colleague or HR staffer’dashould check in regularly. And not just to ask, “Is everything O.K.? but to listen to the answer with an open heart, and when appropriate, offer to serve as a reference to prospective employers.
Three years ago, we wrote a column called, “o Many CEOs Get This Wrong,” and while many letters supported our stance that too many companies undervalue HR, a significant minority pooh-poohed HR as irrelevant to the “real work’s of business. Given the state of things, we wonder how those same HR-minimalists feel now. If their company is in crisis’daor their own career’daperhaps at last they’vseen the light. HR matters enormously in good times. It defines you in the bad.
1. Why does the author say that his friend’s note displayed a “sense of humor”
(A) Because his layoff experience showed vividly the process of “extreme change”
(B) Because he gave a vivid description of the outplacement reps’ work style
(C) Because he suggested to HR how to treat dismissed employees while he himself was fired.
(D) Because he was optimistic with the support and understanding from his friends and loved family members after being dismissed.
2. The expression “moment of truth” in thsentence “Layoffs are yourmoment of truth ...when they entered.” (para. 3) most probably means ________
(A) critical moment of proving one’s worth
(B) time of dismissing the employees
(C) important moment of telling the truth
(D) time of losing one’s dignit
3. Which of the following does NOT support the author’s statement that “HR has to make sure people are let go by their managers, not strangers.”(para. 6)
(A) In that case the let-go employee would feel less dehumanized.
(B) By doing so the managers treat the employees with respect.
(C) HR has thus played the positive role in terms of layoffs.
(D) In doing so strangers will only play the role of a “hired gun’
4. The expression “pink slips” in the sentce “Pink slips should bedelivered face-to-face, eyeball-to-eyeball.”(pra. 6) can best be paraphrased as ________.
(A) a letter of invitation (B) a notice of dismissal
(C) a card of condolences (D) a message of greetings
5. Which of the following expresses the main idea of the passage?
(A) The time to underscore the importance of HR has arrived.
(B) Severance arrangements should be the focus of HR’s job
(C) Employees should be treated with equal respect whether hired or fired.
(D) Managers must leave their duty to HR when employees are dismissed.
Senator Barbara Boxer (D) of California announced this month she intends to move ahead with legislation designed to lower the emission of greenhouse gases that are linked by many scientists to climate change. But the approach she’s takingis flawed, and the current financial crisis can help us understand why.
The centerpiece of this approach is the creation of a market for trading carbon emission credits. These credits would be either distributed free of charge or auctioned to major emitters of greenhouse gases. The firms could then buy and sell permits under federally mandated emissions caps. If a company is able to cut emissions, it can sell excess credits for a profit. If it needs to emit more, it can buy permits on the market from other firnls.“Cap and trade,” as it is called, is advocat by several policymakers, industry leaders, and activists who want to fight global warming. But it’ds based on the trade of highly volatile financial instruments: risky at best. The better approach to climate change? A direct tax placed on emissions of greenhouse gases. The tax would create a market price for carbon emissions and lead to emissions reductions or new technologies that cut greenhouse gases. This is an approach favored by many economists as the financially sensible way to go. And it is getting a closer look by some industry professionals and lawmakers.
At first blush, it might seem crazy to advocate a tax increase during a major recession. But there are several virtues of a tax on carbon emissions relative to a cap-and-trade program. For starters, the country already has a mechanism in place to deal with taxes. Tax collection is something the government has abundant experience with. A carbon trading scheme, on the other hand, requires the creation of elaborate new markets, institutions, and regulations to oversee and enforce it.
Another relative advantage of the tax is its flexibility. It is easier to adjust the tax to adapt to changing economic, scientific, or other circumstances. If the tax is too low to be effective, it can be raised easily. If it is too burdensome it can be relaxed temporarily. In contrast, a cap-and-trade program creates emissions permits that provide substantial economic value to firms and industries.
These assets limit the program’s flexibility one under way, since market actors then have an interest in maintaining the status quo to preserve the value of the assets. What’s more, they can be a recipe for trouble. As my American Enterprise Institute colleagues Ken Green, Steve Hayward, and Kevin Hassett pointed out two years ago, “sdden changes in economic conditions could lead to significant price volatility in a cap-and-trade program that would be less likely under a
carbon-tax regime. Recent experience bears this out. Europe has in place a cap-and-trade program that today looks a little like the American mortgage-backed securities market’dait’s total mess. The price of carbon recently fell’daplummeting from over $30 to around $12 per ton’daas European firms unloade
their permits on the market in an effort to shore up deteriorating balance sheets during the credit crunch. It is this shaky experience with cap-and-trade that might explain an unlikely advocate of a carbon tax. Earlier this year, ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson pointed in a speech to the problems with Europe’s cap-and-trade program’dasuch the program’s volaility and lack of transparency’daas reasons he prefers a carbon tax. That said, new taxes are a tough sell in Washington, which helps explain the current preference for a cap-and-trade scheme. Despite this, there are ways to make a carbon tax more politically appealing.
The first is to insist that it be “revenue nutral.” This means that any revenues collected from the tax are used to reduce taxes elsewhere, such as payroll taxes.The advantage of this approach is that it places a burden on something that is believed by many to be undesirable (greenhouse-gas emissions) while relieving a burden on something that is desirable (work). Another selling point is that the tax can justify the removal of an assortment of burdensome and costly regulations such as CAFE standards for car. These regulations become largely redundant in an era of carbon taxes. But it may be that a carbon tax doesn’t need an elaborate sales pith today when the alternative is trading carbon permits. The nation’s recent experence with Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the mortgage-backed securities market should prompt Congress to think twice when a member proposes the creation of a highly politicized market for innovative financial instruments, no
matter how well intentioned the program may be.
6. The author introduces Senator Barbara Boxer in the passage because she ________.
(A) has made suggestions to ease the current financial crisis
(B) is a pioneer in the reduction of greenhouse gases emission
(C) is well-known for her proposal on legislation reform
(D) plans to propose the legislation of cap-and-trade program
7. Which of the following CANNOT be true about the carbon emission credits system?
(A) The use of carbon credits would show clearly emitters’ efforts in carbon cutting
(B) The credits might be distributed free or auctioned to the emitters.
(C) The price of carbon credits could fluctuate with changing economic conditions.
(D) The credits can be bought and sold between emitters for profits.
8. According to the passage, the cap-and-trade program ________.
(A) will be much more useful in fighting global warming
(B) will not be as effective as a tax on carbon emissions
(C) is being examined by industry professionals and lawmakers
(D) is supported by many policymakers, industry leaders and activists
9. The expression “to shore up” in the sentce “as European firms unloaded their permits on the market in an effort to shore up deteriorating balance sheets during the credit crunch”(para. 6)can best paraphrased as ________.
(A) to eliminate (B) to revise and regulate
(C) to give support to (D) to correct and restructure
10. In the last paragraph, the author mentions Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the mortgage-backed securities to tell the Congress that ________.
(A) the experience with Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the mortgage-backed securities will be useful for the creation of a highly politicized market
(B) the lessons from Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the mortgage-backed securities should not be neglected
(C) the argument over cap-and-trade program and direct tax on carbon emissions should be stopped
(D) the legislation for a cap-and-trade scheme will prove to be the solution to greenhouse gases emission
The gap between what companies might be expected to pay in tax and what they actually pay amounts to billions of pounds’daon that much, everyon can agree. The surprising truth is that no one can agree how many billions are missing, or even how to define “tax gap”. Estimates rang from anything between ‘dê3bn to nearly ‘dê14bn, depenng on who is doing the calculations. Even the people in charge of colleting the taxes’daHer Majesty’s Revenue and Custom (HMRC)’daadmit they have only thevaguest idea of how many further billions of pounds they could be getting...and it took a freedom of information request before they would admit the extent
of their lack of knowledge.Any media organization or MP attempting to pursue the subject will find themselves hampered by the same difficulties faced by the tax collectors’dasecrecy and complexity. The Guardian’investigation, which we publish over the coming two weeks, is no different.
The difficulty starts with an inability of anyone to agree a definition of “tax avoidance”. I continues through the limited amount of information in the public domain. And it is further hampered by the extraordinary complexity of modern global corporations.International companies based in the UK may have hundreds of subsidiary companies, which many use to take advantage of differing tax regimes as they move goods, services and intellectual property around the world. It is estimated that more than half of world trade consists of such movements (known as transfer-pricing) within corporations.
Companies are legally required publicly to declare these subsidiaries. But they generally tell shareholders of only the main subsidiaries. The Guardian’s investiation found five major UK-based corporations which had ignored the requirements of the Companies Act by failing to identify offshore subsidiaries. This is just one example of the atmosphere of secrecy and non-disclosure in Britain which has allowed tax avoidance to flourish. The result is that few outside of the lucrative industries of banking, accountancy and tax law have understood the scale of the capital flight that is now taking place.
British tax inspectors privately describe as formidable the mountain outsiders have to climb in order to comb through the accounts of international companies based in London. “The companies old all the cards,” said one senior former tx inspector. “It’s very difficult because you don’d always know what you are looking for...You are confronted with delay, obstruction and a lot of whingeing from companies who complain about ‘d(R)unreasonable requests’. Sometimes you are jus
piecing together a jigsaw. Another former senior tax inspector said: “On of the problems the Revenue has is that the company doesn’t have to disclose the amount oftax actually paid in any year and the accounts won’t reveal the liability. Each company hasits own method of accounting for tax: there’s no uniform way of declaring it all.”For journalists trying to probe these murky waters, the problems are so substantial that few media organizations attempt it.
A trawl through the published accounts of even a single major group of companies can involve hunting around in the registers of several different countries. It takes a lot of time and a lot of money. Companies’dawith some far-sighted Britih exceptions’dasimply refuse to disclose any more than what appears in the published figures. The legal fiction that a public company is a “legal person”, entitled to total tax secrecand even to “human rights”, makes it normall
impossible for a journalist to penetrate the tax strategies of big business. HMRC refuse, far example, to identify the 12 major companies who used tax avoidance schemes to avoid paying any corporation tax whatever.
It is difficult to access experts to guide the media or MPs through this semantic jungle. The “Big Four” accountants and tax QCs who make a livingout of tax avoidance, have no interest in helping outsiders understand their world. Few others have the necessary knowledge, and those that do, do not come cheap or may be conflicted. “Secrecy is the offshore world’s grea protector,” writes William Brittan-Caitlin, Londonbased former Kroll investigator in his book, Offshore. “Government and states ae generally at a loss to diagnose in detail what is really going on inside corporate internal markets. Corporations are extremely ecretive about the special tax advantages these structures give them.
11. According to the passage, the “tax gap” is _______
(A) a well-defined term included in both British taxation system and the Companies Act
(B) an accepted practice adopted by most international companies based in the UK
(C) a practice difficult to define and discover but common with companies in Britain
(D) the target which has been attacked by British tax inspectors over the past decades
12. It can be concluded that many international companies “move goods, services and intellectual property around the world” (para.4) within corpoations mainly in order ________.
(A) to make use of different tax systems to avoid taxation
(B) to give equal support to all the subsidiaries around the world
(C) to expand the import and export trade with other countries
(D) to raise their productivity and to maximize the profitability
13. When one former senior tax inspector comments that “Sometimes you are just piecing together a jigsaw “(para. 6), h most probably means that ________.
(A) investigating a company’s acounts is the same as playing a children’s gam
(B) the Revenue should reform its regulation to fight illegal “tax avoidance
(C) it’s a complicated matter t investigate an international company’s account
(D) it’s a diffident task toovercome the obstruction from the company’s sid
14. By using the expression “legal fction”(para. 8) to dscribe today’s status of a public company,the author is trying to imply that such a definition ________.
(A) is a humanitarian and legitimate definition protecting the rights of companies
(B) is ridiculous, absurd and hinders the investigation of tax strategies of big companies
(C) is an incorrect and inexact concept to reveal the nature of modem businesses
(D) is a reflection of the reality of companies and corporations and should not be altered
15. In writing this article, the author is planning to tell all of the following to the readers EXCEPT that ________.
(A) the gap between what companies are expected to pay in tax and what they actually pay is too enormous to be neglected
(B) secrecy and complexity are the two major protectors of international corporations in tax avoidance
(C) there are loopholes in the legislation concerning companies which obstruct the practice of taxation
(D) the government plans to investigate the “tax gap” and “taxoidance” of international companies
One of the many upsetting aspects to being in your forties, is hearing people your own age grumbling about “young people” the way we we grumbled about ourselves. Old friends will complain, “Youngsters today have no respect lik we did”, and I’ll think: “Hang on. I rememb the night you set a puma loose in the soft furnishings section of Pricerite’s.There’s also a “radicals” versiof this attitude, a strand within the middle-aged who lament how today’s youngsters, “Don’t demonstrate like wed”, because “we were always marching agains apartheid or for the miners but students these days don’t seem bothered”. It would seem natural i they went on: “The bloody youth of today; the’ve no disrespect for authority. In my day you started chanting and if a copper gave you any lip you gave him a clip round the ear, and he didn’t do it again. We’ve lost those values somehow.
You feel that even if they did come across a mass student protest they’d sneer. “That isn’t proper rebellion, they’ve used the internet. ‘dou wouldn’t have caught Spartacus rounding up his forces by putting a message on Facebook saying ‘d(R)Hi Cm 2 Rome 4 gr8 fite 2 liber8 slaves lets kill emprer lol’’d It doesn’t help that many of the student leaers from the sixties and seventies ended up as ministers or journalists, who try to deny they’ve reneged on theirprinciples by making statements such as: “It’s true I used to run the Campaigto Abolish the British Army, but my recent speech in favour of invading every country in the world in alphabetical order merely places those ideals in a modern setting.
Also it’s become a tougher prospectto rebel as a student, as tuition fees force them to work while they’re studying. But over thelast two weeks students have organized occupations in 29 universities, creating the biggest student revolt for 20 years. In Edinburgh, for example, the demands were that free scholarships should be provided for Palestinian students, and the university should immediately cancel its investments with arms companies.
So the first question to arise from these demands must be: what are universities doing having links with arms companies in the first place? How does that help education? Do the lecturers make an announcement that, “This year, thanks t British Aerospace, the media studies course has possession of not only the latest digital recording equipment and editing facilities, but also three landmines and a Tornado bomber”The occupations involve students selecting an area of the university, then staying there, day and night, and organising a series of events and worthwhile discussions while the authorities pay security guards to stand outside and scowl. Warwick University, for example, organised an “Alternative Careers Fair”, in which, presumablyif someone was brilliant at maths, the careers
adviser would say to them, “I suggest you becom an accountant for a Peruvian guerilla army.
They’re looking for people who can rliably file their tax returns before the deadline, as they’re in enough trouble as it is.But the extraordinary part about this wave of student protest is that in most universities the authorities, having spent the first week insisting the demands were impossible to meet, have now
backed down. So dozens of Palestinians, who these days seem to be minus a university in Gaza for some reason, will have places here. And several are reviewing their connections to the arms trade. University College London, for example, could be severing its link to the arms company Cobham.
Presumably this will spark outrage from predictable sources, who’ll yll: “We don’t pay our taxe so that students can go round selflessly helping people who’ve been bombed. “We fund thei education so they can get a degree in business studies and cock up the global economy. If these layabouts can’t buckle down it’s time we cuoff the funding we’re now giving them and send them out to work in a job that no longer exists’d’d And there’s another imact of a modern student
revolt, which makes it even more threatening than similar protests in the sixties. Because most students now have to work to fund their course, so a protest like this will not only infuriate their authorities, it will also bring every pizza delivery company and chicken nuggets shop to its knees at the same time.
16. The author introduces the attitude of the middle-aged towards youngsters today ________.
(A) to show that generation gap is a perennial phenomenon
(B) to illustrate how modern young students could be misunderstood
(C) to display how the middle-aged have changed from radicals to conservatives
(D) to tell the readers how the youngsters are changing their outlooks and values
17. The expression “backed down” from the sentenc”in most universities the authorities, having spent the first week insisting the demands were impossible to meet, have now backed down” (para.8) can best be paraphrased as ________.
(A) counterattacked the student protest
(B) kept quiet and silent
(C) decided to give their support
(D) withdrawn from the stance of opposition
18. The purpose of the “Alterative Careers Fair “organied by students from Warwick University is ________.
(A) to protest against the policies of universities’investment with arms companies
(B) to organise students to fight against arms companies occupying university campuses
(C) to give advice and help graduating students find jobs in the current economic crisis
(D) to demand the university authorities to lower tuition fees and offer more jobs
19. The author’s attitude towards today’s young people is _______
(A) indifferent and unfriendly (B) satirical and critical
(C) sympathetic and understanding (D) upsetting and pessimistic
20. Which of the following CANNOT be concluded from the last paragraphs of the passage?
(A) Today’s student revoltsare not supported by all parts of the society.
(B) The pizza delivery companies and chicken nuggets shops also suffer from student revolt.
(C) Today’s studentprotests will have more impacts as students have to work to support their study.
(D) The modern student revolts and student protests in the sixties are equally threatening.
SECTION 3: TRANSLATION TEST (30 minutes)
directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
Amid the hubbub over a few less-bad-than-expected statistics, America’s economic debate has turned to the nature of the recovery. Optimists expect a vigorous rebound as confidence returns, pent-up demand is unleashed and massive government stimulus takes effect. Most observers are bracing for a long slog, as debt-laden consumers rebuilt their savings, output growth remains weak and unemployment continues to rise. There is, however, something that eventually will have
a much bigger impact on Americans’ prosperity tha the slope of the recovery. That is the effect of the crisis on America’s potetial rate of growth itself.
An economy’s long-term speed limitits “trend “or “potential” rate of gro is the pace at which GDP can expand without affecting unemployment and, hence, inflation. It is determined by growth in the supply of labor along with the speed with which productivity improves. The pace of potential growth helps determine the sustainability of everything from public debt to the prices of shares. Unfortunately, the outlook for America’s potential growthrate was darkening long before
the financial crisis hit. The IT-induced productivity revolution, which sent potential output soaring at the end of the 1990s, has waned. More important, America’s labor supply is growing more slowly as the population ages, the share of women working has leveled off and that of students who work has fallen.
SECTION 4: LISTENING TEST
Part A: Note-taking and Gap-filling
Directions: In this part of the test you will hear a short talk. You will hear the talk ONLY ONCE. While listening to the talk, you may take notes on the important points" so that you can have enough information to complete a gap-filling task on a separate ANSWER BOOKLET. You will not get your TEST BOOK and ANSWER BOOKLET until after you have listened to the talk.
Many employees complain that they’re bing _________ (1) while they work during the _________ (2). In a new survey of more than 900 major U.S. companies, nearly _________ (3) of them acknowledged using a range of _________ (4) methods to monitor their employees. And up to a quarter of the companies that monitor their workforce do it _________ (5). The number of employees being monitored has _________ (6) in the last five years. There are two reasons for this first, it’s _________ (7);second, monitoring could be done _________ (8) and efficiently. Most employers insist that these are _________ (9) and even necessary business _________ (10), They have a _________ (11) to know how _________ (12) they provide is being used on the job. Monitoring can also be used to deter _________ (13), and for the workers own _________ (14).But many attorneys are arguing that employees do not give up their _________ (15) rights when they show up for work. Employees should always be _________ (16) when they’re monitored. Some employees even emphasize that there should be no monitoring whatsoever in purely _________ (17) areas. Yet, so far there is only one state’daConnecticut’dathat _________ (18)surveillance in areas such as locker rooms or the employee lounge. There’s only one federal_________ (19), the 1986 Electronic Communications Privacy Act, that _________ (20) employee privacy.
Part B: Listening and Translation
1. Sentence Translation
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear 5 English sentences. You will hear the sentences ONLY ONCE. After you have heard each sentence, translate it into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
2. Passage Translation
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear 2 English passages. You will hear the passages ONLY ONCE. After you have heard each passage, translate it into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET. You may take notes while you are listening.
SECTION 5: READING TEST (30 minutes)
Directions: Read the following passages and then answer IN COMPLETE SENTENCES the questions which follow each passage. Use only information from the passage you have just read and write your answer in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
Disparaging comments by adults about a children’spresenter have led to an angry backlash in support of Cerrie Burnell, the 29-year-old CBeebies host who was born missing the lower section of her right arm. One man said that he would stop his daughter from watching the BBC children’s channel because Burnell would give his child nightmares.
Parents even called the broadcaster to complain after Burnell, with Alex Winters, took over the channel’s popular Do and Discover slot andThe Bedtime Hour programme last month, to complain about her disability. And some of the vitriolic comments on the “Grown Up” section othe channel’s website were so nasty that they had to be removed.
“Is it just me, or does anyone else think the nw woman presenter on CBeebies may scare the kids because of her disability?” wrote one adult on te CBeebies website. Other adults claimed that their children were asking difficult questions as a result. “I didn’t want to let my children watch the filler bits on The Bedtime Hour last night because I know it would have played on my eldest daughter’s mind and possibly caused sleep problms,” said one message. The BBC received nine other complaints by phone.
While charities reacted angrily to the criticism of the children’s presenter, calling the comments disturbing, other parents and carers labeled the remarks as disgraceful, writing in support of Burnell and setting up a “fight disability prejuice” page on the social networking site Facebook “I think that it is great that Crrie is on CBeebies. She is an inspiration to children and we should not underestimate their ability to understand and accept that all of us have differences’dasome visible and some not,” wrote ‘durfergirlboosmum”. Other websies were flooded with equally supportive comments. “I feel we should all post ounter complaints to the BBC and I’m sure they will receive more complaints about the fact they have even considered accepting these complaints,” wrote Scott Tostevin on Facebook. ‘dt’s a disgrace that pople still have such negative views against people who are ‘d(R)different’”, he add.Burnell, who described her first television presenting role as a “deam job”, has also appeared in EastEnders and Holby City and has been feted for performances in the theatre while also worked as a teaching assistant at a special needs school in London. She also has a four-year-old chi ld. “Ithink the negative comments from those few parents are indicative of a wider problem of disabled representation in the media as a whole, which is why it’s so importantfor there to be more disabled role models in every area of the media,” she said in response yesterday “The support that I’ve received ... s been truly heartening. It’s briliant that parents are able to use me as a way of talking about disability with their children and for children who are similarly disabled to see what really is possible in life and for their worlds to be represented in such a positive, high profile manner.
Charities said that much still needed to be done to change perceptions in society. “In some way it is a pretty sad commentary on the way society is now and that both parents and children see few examples of disabled people. The sooner children are exposed to disability in mainstream education the better,” said Mark Shrimpton a Radar, the UK’s largest disability campaigning organisation. “She is a role model for other disabled people.Rosemary Bolinger, a trustee at Scope, a charity for people with cerebral palsy, said: “It is disturbing that some parents have reacted in this way ... Unfortunately disabled people are generally invisible in the media and wider society.
1. Who is Cerrie Burnell? Give a brief introduction of Cerrie Burnell.
2. What are the responses from parents and carers towards Cerrie Burnell? What is the reaction from charities to such criticism?
3 What is Cerrie Burnell’s own vie about her job as a television presenter?
When it comes to going green, intention can be easier than action. Case in point: you decide to buy a T shirt made from 100% organic cotton, because everyone knows that organic is better for Earth. And in some ways it is; in conventional cotton-farming, pesticides strip the soil of life. But that green label doesn’t tell thewhole story’dalike the fact that een organic cotton requires more than 2,640 gal. (10,000 L) of water to grow enough fiber for one T shirt. Or the possibility that the T shirt may have been dyed using harsh industrial chemicals, which can pollute local groundwater. If you knew all that, would you still consider the T shirt green? Would you still buy it? It’s a question that most of us ae ill equipped to answer, even as the debate over what is and isn’t green becomes all-important in a hot and crowded world. That’s becauseas the global economy has grown, our ability to make complex products with complex supply chains has outpaced our ability to comprehend the consequences’dafor ourselves and the panet. We evolved to respond to threats that were clear and present. That’s why, when we eat poiled food, we get nauseated and when we see a bright light, we shut our eyes. But nothing in evolution has prepared us to understand the cumulative impact that imperceptible amounts of industrial chemicals may have on our children’s health or the slow-moving, ong-term danger of climate change. Scanning the supermarket aisles, we lack the data to understand the full impact of what we choose and probably couldn’t make sense of the information even if we had it
But what if we could seamlessly calculate the full lifetime effect of our actions on the earth and on our bodies? Not just carbon footprints but social and biological footprints as well? What if we could think ecologically? That’s wat psychologist Daniel Goleman describes in his forthcoming book, Ecological Intelligence. Using a young science called industrial ecology, businesses and green activists alike are beginning to compile the environmental and biological impact of our every decision’daand delivering that information t consumers in a user-friendly way. That’s thinking ecologically’daunderstandingthe global environmental consequences of our local choices. “We can know that causes of what we’re doingand we can know the impact of what we’re doing,” says Goleman, who wrote the 1995 best selle Emotional Intelligence. “It’s going to have a radical impact on the way we do business.
Over the past couple of decades, industrial ecologists have been using a method called life-cycle assessment (LCA) to break down that web of connection. The concept of the carbon footprint comes from LCA, but a deep analysis looks at far more. The manufacture and sale of a simple glass bottle requires input from dozens of suppliers; for high-tech items, it can include many times more. The good news is that industrial ecologists can now crunch those data, and smart companies like
Coca-Cola are using the information to clean up their corporate ecology. Working with the World Wildlife Fund, Coke analyzed its globe-spanning supply chain’dathe company uses 5% of the world’s total sugar crop’dato see ere it could minimize its impact; today Coke is on target to improve its water efficiency 20% by 2012.
Below the megacorporate level, start-ups like the website Good Guide are sifting through rivers of data for ordinary consumers, providing easy-to-understand ratings you can use to instantly gauge the full environmental and health impact of that T shirt. Even better, they’ll get the information to you when you need it: Good Guide has an iPhone app that can deliver verdicts on tens of thousands of products. Good Guide and services like it “let us align our dollars with our values
easily,” says Goleman But ecological intelligence is ultimately about more than what we buy. It’s also about our ability to accept that we live in an infinitely connected world with finite resources. Goleman highlights the Tibetan community of Sher, where for millenniums, villagers have survived harsh conditions by carefully conserving every resource available to them. The Tibetans think ecologically because they have no other choice. Neither do we. “Weonce had the luxury to ignore our impacts,” says oleman. “Not anymore.
4. Why does the author give the example of buying a T shirt made from 100% organic cotton at the beginning of the passage?
5. What does the author mean by saying that “our ability to make complex products withcomplex supply chains has outpaced our ability to comprehend the consequences” (para. 2)
6. Give a brief introduction of the young science of “industrial eology”. What does the example of Coca Cola tell us?
7. What does the psychologist Daniel Goleman mean by saying “We once had the luxury to ignore our impacts.”(para. 7)
“Isn’t it funny/How they never make any moneWhen everyone in the racket/Cleans up such a packet.” That Basil Boothroyd poem was originallywritten about the movies, but it could just as well apply to banking. In its last three years, Bear Stearns paid $11.3 billion in employee compensation and benefits. According to its 2007 annual report, Lehman Brothers shelled out $21.6 billion in the three years before, while Merrill Lynch paid staff over $45 billion during the
three years to 2007.And what have shareholders got from all this? Lehman’s got nothing (he company went bust). Investors in Bear Stearns received around $1.4 billion of JPMorgan Chase Stock, now worth just half that after the fall in the acquirer’s share pice. Merrill Lynch’s shaeholders got shares in Bank of America (BofA) which are now worth just $9.6 billion, less than a fifth of the original offer value. Meanwhile, Citigroup paid $34.4 billion to its employees in 2007 and is now valued by the stock market at just $18.1 billion.All this has reinforced the idea that banking is simply a gravy train for employees. The row over
the early payment of bonuses at Merrill Lynch shows yet again that insiders’ interests come first (those to BofA staff, however, are likely to shrivel).
The case against banks goes something like this. Over the past 25 years, the cost of finance has been low and asset prices have generally been rising. That has encouraged banks to use more leverage in order to earn high returns on equity. The process of lending money against the security of assets, or trading assets with the banks’ capital, helped to push asset prices even higher.A sizeable proportion of the profits that resulted from all this activity was then handed out to
employees in the form of wages and bonuses.But when asset prices started to fall, the whole system unraveled. Banks were forced to cut the amounts that they had borrowed, putting further downward pressure on prices. The “shadow banking system”, which relied on bank finance, sarted to default. The result was losses that
outweighed the profits built up in the good years; Merrill Lynch lost $15.3 billion in the fourth quarter of 2008 alone, compared with the $12.6 billion of post tax profits it earned in 2005 and 2006 combined.
In effect, executives and employees were given a call option on the markets by the banking system. They took most of the profits when the market was booming and shareholders bore the bulk of the losses during the bust. What about the efforts made to align the incentives of employees, executives and shareholders’? Employeeswere often paid in restricted stock and thus suffered heavily whentheir firms collapsed; Dick Fuld, the boss of Lehman Brothers, was a prominent example. Why then were bankers not more cautious, given the risks to their own wealth?
There were two main reasons. First, their base packages (pay and cash bonuses) were sufficiently large to make them feel financially secure. That gave bankers a licence to gamble in the hope of earning the humungous payouts that would take them into the ranks of the ber-wealthy. The second reason was that the bankers simply did not recognize the risks they were taking. Like most commentators (including central bankers), they thought that the economic outlook was stable and
that the financial system was doing a good job of spreading risk.Henceforth two things need to be done. The first is that the trigger for incentives (as well as the payments themselves) need to be longer-term in nature. Bonuses could still be paid annually but based on the average performance over several years; if bankers are rewarded for increasing the size of the loan book, their pay off should be delayed until the borrower has established a sound payment record. The effect would be to claw back profits earned by excessive risk-taking. The second is that the banks’ capitalhas to be properly allocated. If traders are given licence to use
leverage to buy into rising asset markets, then the trading division should be charged a cost of capital high, enough to reflect the risks involved.
Impossible, the banks might say: our star employees will never tolerate such restrictions. But if there is ever going to be a time to reorganize the incentive structure now must be it. A threat to quit will be pretty hollow, given the state of investment banking. And few traders will have the clout to set up their own hedge funds in today’ds market conditions. In any case, the greediest employees may be the ones most likely to usher in the next banking crisis. Better to wave them goodbye and wish good luck to their next employer.
8.What does the author mean by saying that “that banking is simply a gravy train for employees” (para. 3)
9. What does the author suggest to solve the major problem of current banking system?
10. Comment on the statement “In any case, the geediest employees may be the ones most likely to usher in the next banking crisis” (para. 9)
SECTION 6: TRANSLATION TEST (30 minutes)
rections: Translate the following passage into English and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET
For more than two centuries, American's colleges and universities have been the backbone of the country's progress. They have educated their technical, managerial and professional work force, and provided generation after generation of national leaders.
Today, educators from around the country are up to find many reasons for the excellence of the American universities.
But four historic acts stand out as watersheds.
First, education for the mass. In 1862, congress enacted the Land-Grand College Act, which essentially extended the opportunity of higher education to all Americans, including women and minorities.
Each state was permitted to sell large tracts of federal land, and use the proceeds to endow at least one public college.
Second, competition breeds success. Over the years, the decentralization and diversity of the America's colleges and universities have promoted competition for students and resources.
Competitive pressure first arose during the Civil War, when President Lincoln created the National Academy of Science, to advice congress on any subject of science and art.
The academy's impact really grew after World War 2, when a landmark report commissioned by the then president, argue that it was the Federal government's responsibility to provide adequate funds for basic research.
Instead of been centralized in government's laboratories, scientific researches became decentralized in the American universities, and generated increasing investment.
It also gave graduate students research opportunities, and help spread scientific discoveries far and wide, to the benefit of industry, medicine, and society as a whole.
Thirdly, investing in the future. The end of World War 2, saw the passage of Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944.
The law, which provided for college or vocational education for returning veterans, made the higher education system accessible in ways that were inconceivable in Europe, opening the door of the best universities to men and women who had never dreamed of going to college.
Finally, promoting diversity. The creation of federal loan and subsidy programs, as well as outright grand for college students, brought much needed diversity to higher education, and further help to democratize access.
Since it's funded in 1965, Federal Family Education Loan Program has funded more than 74 million student loans, worth more than 180 billion dollars.
the Land-Grand College Act：also known as The Morrill Land-Grant Acts. It was United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges, including the Morrill Act of 1862 and the Morrill Act of 1890 (the Agricultural College Act of 1890).
Servicemen's Readjustment Act:
The G.I. Bill (officially titled Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944) was an omnibus bill that provided college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs) as well as one year of unemployment compensation. It also provided many different types of loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses. Since the original act, the term has come to include other veteran benefit programs created to assist veterans of subsequent wars as well as peacetime service.
The Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFEL) is the largest of the U.S. higher education loan programs. FFEL was initiated by the Higher Education Act of 1965 and is funded through a public/private partnership administered at the state and local level. In 2007-08, FFEL served 6.5 million students and parents, lending a total of $54.7 billion in new loans (or 80 percent of all new federal student loans). Since 1965, 60 million Americans have used FFEL loans to pay for education expenses.
A: Grace, what's interesting to you about living in the city? Why do you like it?
B: Well, I'm just a city girl. One time I bought a house in the country to escape from the urban ills, and then found myself totally bored with country life. Because you have to drive everywhere, and there's not much to do. I'm used to the fast pace of the city. There's a whole variety of museums, movies, coffee shops, and places to interact with people. But sitting alone in the country, you know, unless you like to grow a garden, or patter around and build things with your hands.
A: Okay, but what about your vacation? I mean, a lot of city people rent vacation houses in the country.
B: But to me, going to the country for a vacation makes no sense at all. There's so much work to do. First you have to get there, and then, I don't know. I think I can relax better in the city. Besides, the country has bugs. There you are supposedly enjoying yourself in the fresh country air, but you are been eaten alive by a variety of different bugs. You can't enjoy yourself. You are been stung and eaten to death. You can't relax. Let's put it this way. If you like boredom, you'll like the country. People who like a lot of stimulation, you know, can't hack it. And then there's the transportation thing, I mean, to get a carton of milk, you have to drive three miles. So the whole car culture thing kicks in. Gives me the city any time.
A: Well, what would you say is the one thing you like most about the city?
B: The interactive social life. People get together. I like it when you call up and people say "come on over", and you hang out together. And it's just fun.
A: Yah, and what about the suburbs?
B: Well, that's even more hateful than the country to me.
B: Well, the suburbs don't even have any of the good country air. There's nothing to do. You just stuck there. And for young people, there are all sorts of problems, alcohol, drugs, you have to drive everywhere... Look, I go to my friend's house in the suburbs. Do you ever see anyone walking in the street? No, it's totally zero. There's nothing going on. What can I say?! You know, it's not for me. I do have one or two suburban friends who like it, because they make a barbeque and the birds are chirping, but not me. And then there's another thing I really hate, in the city, you can make mistakes but you always get a second chance; But in the country and the suburbs, you are labeled. You feel like "wow, that's it!" you are labeled. And that label doesn't come off easily.
A: Well, do you think the city is lonely, or dangerous?
B: NO! In the city, people live in little communities, they have interactive social lives. And I don't think the city is particularly dangerous.
Q1 There are several reasons why the woman likes living in the city, which of the following is NOT one of the reasons?
Q2 What does the woman think of vacation in the country?
Q3 What does the woman like most about the city?
Q4 Which of the following is true about living in the suburbs according to the woman?
Q5 How does the woman describe the city life?
London, the United Kingdom
The Left-Leaning Think Tank, the institute for public policy research (IPPR), has warned UK chancellor not to use green taxes to plug the hole in government finances. Its new research shows that the government could gain 3.5 billion pounds a year through a carbon tax on homes and vehicles. But IPPR says this would harm the poor, unless ministers give back all the cash in the form of benefits, tax breaks and home insulation. IPPR has developed a computer model to assess the benefits and drawbacks of environmental taxes. The preliminary findings suggest that taxes can prove a useful tool and achieving environmental objectives. But IPPR says it would be a mistake to use them to raise money because unless they are counter-balanced, they inevitably hit the poorest hardest and are mistrusted by the public.
German business confidence rose less than expected in May, as sluggish demand weighed on construction and manufacturing. Go out look for the six-month ahead improved, a closely watched survey showed.
The Munich-based IFO institute's business climate index increased to 84.2 points in May from 83.7 points in April. That’s a steady increase from 82.2 points in March, the lowest level in 26 years. IFO said in a release that manufacturers reported a poorer business situation this month than in April, but expecting improvement in the next 6 months. Germany’s economy went into recession last fall as the global economic crisis sapped demand for its exports.
Washington, the United States
President Obama’s tougher new fuel efficiency standards bring industry, environmentalists and states together to start cutting green house gas emissions from cards. But the reductions would represent only a drop in the bucket of what’s needed to address global warming. White House officials say the proposal would cut green house gas emissions by about 9oo million metro tons, as the total reduction of pollution from the 5 model years of cars and trucks covered by the proposal. Environmental protection agency chief Lisa Jackson notes that even though the pollution reductions are big, they are dwarfed by the massive challenge of global warming, "This action alone, I don’t want to mislead anyone, is not going to change global temperatures. " Obviously, it is one step on the long road.
Although it adds lower last week, oil price rose to 61 dollars a barrel Monday in Asia, as investors add an OPEC meeting this week and wait evidence of a global economic recovery. Trading was light because US markets are closed Monday for Memorial Day. Benchmark crude for July delivery was 61 dollars 32 cents a barrel by midday on the New York Mercantile exchange. On Friday, the contract rose to settle at 61 dollars 67 cents. Oil has rallied on investor optimism that the worst of the global economic downturn is over. In Asia, there are signs that the drop in exports has bottomed, although the outlook remains murky.
Scores of people were killed and tens of thousands left homeless in central Italy today after a powerful earthquake shook a mountain region, severely damaging a historic city ad leaving hundreds feared trapped in rubble. At least 92 people were known to have died, and more than 1,500 people had been injured, the Italian Prime Minister, Silvio Berlusconi, told a press conference in L’aquila, the badly damaged capital of the Abruzzo region, close to the epicenter. The 6.3-magnitude tremor was the country’s deadliest since the Irpinia quake in the south in November 1980, which killed more than 2,500 people.
Q6 Why has the left-leaning IPPR warned the government not to use green taxes to raise money?
Q7 Which of the following best describes Germany’s current economy?
Q8 Which of the following statement is true about President Obama’s proposal about new fuel efficiency standards?
Q9 What price was oil on Monday in Asia?
Q10 At least how many people were known to have died in the recent earthquake in central Italy?
A: BMW, STARBUCKS and NOKIA, they are all brands easily recognizable around the world and getting even more so, according to a new survey of the top 100 global brands. Of all, Tech. company seem to beginning dominants. Coca Cola still holds the No.1 spot. Microsoft is No. 2. And IBM comes in at No. 3. Business week and Inter-brands team up annually to determine these rankings. And joining us now to discuss them is Inter-brand's chief executive John Albert. John, thanks for being here. Very briefly, what is the criteria?
B: The criteria is that we need brands that have strong franchise with consumers, but importantly, businesses underline those brands that have very large amounts of revenue.
A: Large amounts of revenue, so basically you look at the matter numerically?
B: Well, it's a combination of numerical factors, and more soft marketing factors. So we look at the degree of resilience that the consumers have with a particular brand proposition, and that allows us to actually discount from an entire group of earnings. How many of those earnings are attributable to the brand?
A: Let's take a look at some of these. Coca Cola, for instance, because it's more than just a brand, I think for a lot of people, it almost has certain nostalgia.
B: Yeah, look, Coke is obviously famous for a proposition around refreshment. What Coke's been able to do cleverly is to take that through generations, but also take it through different ethnographies, and through different market demographics. So people around the world buy into the Coke proposition.
A: Microsoft. A lot of people hate Microsoft, you know? Because they feel that it's monopolistic, and so on and so forth. Yeah, it runs most of the software for computers, or has the software that runs most of computers.
B: Microsoft is a good lesson. And I'm not sure whether people hate Microsoft. I mean Microsoft is great.
A: Well, a percentage of people do. I mean, you know, a lot of anti-competitive practices and so forth. I'm not expressing an opinion here. But you know, talk to somebody who has an APPLE computer, for instance.
B: Sure, as I have had. Microsoft actually has a fantastic product underneath its brand. And of course, without a fantastic product, you can't build a valuable brand. And we've seen that, through some of the great rises in the table this year, with the likes of E-bay, which has a fantastic product; the likes of Google, which has a fantastic product.
A: It really does come down to the functionality of the product.
B: Well, it's not just a functionality. It's about delivering on the promise and brands obviously are promoted to build a promise to consumers. And if they continuously deliver on that promise, people will go back again and again, and build loyalty with those brands.
A: Why do you think some companies have been so successful at building a brand while some aren't able to do it?
B: Well, I guess the product is critical, but a number of these brand market has been around for a long time.
A: Let me just go back. You say the product is critical. Now Starbucks would say their coffee is certainly different than what you'll get from one of the competitors, but the basic coffee is not that different. So there's some atmosphere that's also created that makes people want to buy this brand.
B: Sure, what I mean is product is an entry level criteria. If you don't have a good product, you can't build a strong brand. So in the case of Starbucks, what they have been able to do is to build a motional place on top of that product that people have bought into, and understand that Starbucks has been something more than just functional coffee.
Q11 According to the new survey, at the top of 100 global brands, which of the following brands holds the number 1 spot?
Q12 There are several factors involved in ranking the brands. Which of the following is NOT one of the factors?
Q13 According to the woman, why do a lot of people hate Microsoft?
Q14 Which of the following best explains the huge success of Starbucks?
Q15 What do top global brands have in common according to the interview?
Today I'd like to talk about the work of Pedal Power, a small charity based mainly in the UK. I'll be giving our contact details at the end, if anyone would like to find out more about how to support us. The first, how the charity began. I got the idea of exporting bicycles to developing countries while I was in Ecuador. I went there in 2001, just after graduating from university. After three years of studying, I wanted adventure. I love travelling, so I decided to join a voluntary organisation and we were sent to Ecuador to carry out land service. The project came to an end after 5 years and when I returned to the UK in 2006, I started planning Pedal Power. Where I lived in Ecuador was a very rural area. My neighbour had the only bicycle in the village. Whereas anyone else walked to anywhere, my neighbour's business was usually successful. And for years I couldn't understand why. Then I realised having a bike meant he could get wherever he wanted to go without much trouble. Other local carpenters could only accept jobs in a three-kilometre radius. So no matter how skilled they were, they could never do as many jobs as my neighbour. At Pedal Power, we collect second hand bikes in the UK and send them to some of the poorest regions of the world. When we distribute bikes overseas, we don't give them away for free. We'd like to. But long term that doesn't help the local ecomony. The demand for bikes is enomours, which makes them very expensive locally. So we sell them for 5% of the normal price. But in order to continue operating, we need to have a constant supply of bikes which we send out very six months. One example of a town that perceived bicycles from Pedal Power is Rivers. It was the first place I sent a full container of bicycles to. Most people there now own a bicycle. The local economy has developed so much, you wouldn't recognise it as the same place. In fact, there are more bikes than on the streets of Amsterdam, if you've ever been there. But Pedal Power still needs your help. You may have read about some of our recent problems in the British media. In August 2007, we simply run out of money. We have containers of bikes ready to sent, but no money to pay the bills. It was a terrible situation. We managed to ensure the bikes went out on time, but the other problems carried on for several months. Fortunately in October 2007, we won an enterprise award which helped us enormously. We invested 15 of the 75,000-pound-prize money to help secure our future. Winning the award helped rise our profile, and the money enabled us to pay all our shipping cost which represent our greatest expense. Pedal Power changes lives when someone gets a bicycle from us. They see a 14% increase in their income. We are currently looking to investing computers so that our office staff can do an even better job. Because of our work, people in a number of countries now have a better standard of living. So far we have provided 46,000 people with bikes. But we'd like to send more, at least 50,000 by the end of the year. Now there are many ways in which you can support the work of Pedal Power, not just by taking a bike to a collection in your area. I should also like to say, if you do have a bike to donate, it doesn't matter what condition it's in. If we can't repair it, we'll strip it down for spare parts. Of course to do that we also need tools which are expensive to buy. So we welcome any that you can give. Also, you could organise to bring in funds for us. People do all kinds of things, including of course sponsored bike rides. Also, we are always interested to hear of other places that would benefit from receiving a consignment of bikes. And welcome suggestions from people who've been to developing regions on their travels. We hope by talking on radio programmes like this, we will be able to raise public awareness, which will lead to government organisations also giving us regular financial support, something that we really need.
Q16 What type of institution is Pedal Power?
Q17 What's the work of Pedal Power?
Q18 How does Pedal Power distribute the bikes they collect in the UK?
Q19 How many people has Pedal Power provided with bicycles so far?
Q20 The speaker mentions several ways people can support the work of Pedal Power, which of the following is not one of these ways?
Note-taking & Gap-filling
Many employees complain that they are being watched while they work during the day. The majority of US companies keep watch on their workers with video cameras, tape recorders, computer surveillance. If you send personal e-mail on your office computer, there's a good chance the boss is keeping an eye on you.
In a new survey of more than 900 major US companies, nearly 2/3 of them acknowledged using a range of surveillance methods to monitor their employees. Some employers issue that warning, but others do not. In the most worrisome findings of the survey, up to a quarter of the companies that monitor their work force do it secretly, and the practice is on the rise. According to the ACLU workplace rights project, the number of employees been monitored has doubled in the last five years.
What's driving this increase? Partly it’s competition. If everyone else in an industry is keeping tags on their workers, there's pressure to join in. But to a large extend, companies have stepped up monitoring, simply because it could be done cheaply and efficiently. Most employers insist that these are legitimate and even necessary business practices. According to these employers, even as surveillance becomes more wide spread, there's nothing sinister about the practice itself.
They claim that these practices we are talking about for the most part are very legitimate forms of performance monitoring. They say employers have a right to know how equipment they provide is been used on the job, if rules are being obeyed, if employees are getting the job done.
That helps explain why banks routinely take customer service calls, and why the US postal service is testing a satellite system to track how long it takes to get the mail delivered.
The National Association of Manufactures says companies are using technology to accomplish other important goals. Video cameras were recently installed in his building to deter theft. And the association keeps a log of all phone calls, so employees can pay the company for their personal calls. According to the association, monitoring can be used for the worker's own protection. If an employee is sending pornography from an employer's computer, obviously the employer will be expected to go through there.
If somebody complains about sexual harassment, that somebody sending out visual slurs over the e-mail, the employer has a right to take action. In fact, the Chevron cooperation which sued by female employees who said they were sexually harassed through company e-mail. But many attorneys are arguing that employees do not give up their privacy rights when they show up for work. Rebecca Lock, the legal director of the ACLU’s work place rights project doesn't agree.
She concedes there are legitimate uses of monitoring programs. But too often surveillance practices demean workers for no good reason. Lock argues that employee should not have to leave their human dignity at the work place door. And she says they’re entitled to a few safe guards in this area. Employees should always been informed when they are monitored. Some employees even emphasize that there should be no monitoring whatsoever in purely private areas.
Yet so far, there's only one state— Connecticut — that forbids surveillance in areas such as locker rooms, or the employee lounge. In other states, employers do secretly video tape private places if faces theft or criminal activities such as drug dealing.
There's only one federal statute, in 1986, Electronic Communication's Privacy Act that safeguard employee privacy. But according to the National Association of Manufacturers, the scope of the Act is limited to eavesdropping on private telephone calls.
Employee rights' attorney Penny Nathan Keen isn't involved in the case over this very issue. She says as the companies continue to expand employee monitoring, workers are turning to the court to protect their rights. There may even be good business reasons for companies to think twice about increase surveillance.
Studies link electronic monitoring to higher levels of worker stress which can lead to lower productivity.
1. We have limited our production to certain medicines which are prescribed in large quantities. At the same time, we have been expanding our marketing activities abroad, including Asia, North America, and Australia.
2. I really must insist that it’s impossible to view the performance of the company solely from the point of view of Europe. We have nearly 2/3 of our workforce and subsidiaries and associated companies overseas.
3. Every business, no matter how large or small, depends on advertising to attract and keep customers, advertisements are everywhere because the media are everywhere, we cannot escape their influence, they effect us everyday of our lives.
4. We have a message for divers traveling south, and accident on a southbound carriage way of the M6 in Lancashire is causing congestion and delays. The road should be clear in about an hour’s time.
5. As rescue work continues in wide areas of southern Mexico, it is becoming increasingly more likely that the present toll of 650 dead will rise much higher. The worst damage appears to be in small isolated towns and villages.
1. How to write a good news story? Unless the correspondent is an eye witness, it is rare to trust any single source. Rumor and gossip can confuse the situation. So you have to check information as much as possible. Using commonsense and experience as final checks to help establish just what is likely to be the truth or close to it. Once the information is avalable, it has to be written in an interesting and easily understood way. Particularly for a radio, since while a newspaper reader can turn back and reread a sentence or two, the radio listener has only one chance. So there should be an element of repetition.
2. Volvo, Sweden’s largest car-making group, has announced plans to make 500 staff redundant at its U.K. – based subsidiary in Scotland. The redundancies are part of a move by Volvo to improve productivity. But the news of redundancy has been badly received here in Scotland. I spoke to some of the workers at a Volvo subsidiary factory. They say these are unnecessary job losses. It’s devastating. It will destroy entire communities. Volvo strongly denies that communities will collapse as the result of the job losses. They say they will improve investment and business. The group’s cost-cutting measure also extends to Spain, where they will make job cuts at its other subsidiary factory, which employed 30.000 people.
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1. Cerrie Burnell is a 29-year-old CBeebies host who was born disabled with her lower section of her right arm. She is a mother of a four-year-old child. She, together with Alex Winters, presided over the channel's popular Do and Discover slot and The Bedtime Hour programme last month. She is now facing abusive
comments from parents.
2. Parents and carers called the broadcaster to complain about her disability. Some complaints were so vitriolic and nasty that they had to be removed. While charities reacted angrily to the criticism of the children's presenter, calling the comments disturbing, other parents and carers labelled the remarks as disgraceful, writing in support of Burnell and setting up a “fight disability prejudice” page on e social networking site Facebook.
3. Cerrie Burnell's own view about her job as a television presenter was that she described her first television presenting role as a “dream job”. Shthought the negative comments from those few parents are indicative of a wider problem of disabled representation in the media as a whole, which is why it's so important for there to be more disabled role models in every area of the media.
4. By giving the example of buying a T-shirt made of 100% organic cotton at the beginning of the passage, the author intended to point out that the T-shirt was not environmental-friendly; it may have been dyed using harsh industrial chemicals, which can pollute local groundwater.
5. By saying that “our ability to make complex products with comple supply chains has outpace d our ability to comprehend the consequences”, the author means that nothing in evolution has prepared us to understand the cumulative impact that imperceptible amounts of industrial chemicals may have on our children's health or the slow-moving, long-term danger of climate change.
6. The young science of “industrial technology” wadescribed by psychologist Daniel Goleman in his forthcoming book, Ecological Intelligence. Using a young science called industrial ecology, businesses and green activists alike are beginning to compile the environmental and biological impact of our every
decision-and delivering that information to consumers in a user-friendly way. The example of Coca Cola tells us some good news that industrial ecologists can now crunch those data about suppliers of goods or services, and smart companies like Coca-Cola are using the information to clean up their corporate ecology.
7. By saying that “We once had the luxury to ignore our impacts”, psychologist Daniel Goleman meant the ecological intelligence is ultimately about more than what we buy. It's also about our ability to accept that we live in an infinitely connected world with finite resources. He also highlights the Tibetan community of Sher, where for millenniums, villagers have survived harsh conditions by carefully conserving every resource available to them. The Tibetans think ecologically because they have no other choice. Neither do we.8. A gravy train literally means something that requires little effort while yielding considerable profit, and here it refers to the fact that banking employees could always get bonuses first without taking the risks of losing money. The row over the early payment of bonuses at Merrill Lynch shows yet again that insiders' interests come first.
9. The author offered two suggestions to solve the major problem of current banking system. The first is that the trigger for incentives (as well as the payments themselves) need to be longer-term in nature. Bonuses could still be paid annually but based on the average performance over several years; if bankers are rewarded for increasing the size of the loan book, their pay-off should be delayed until the borrower has established a sound payment record. The effect would be to claw back profits earned by excessive risk-taking. The second is that the banks' capital has to be properly allocated. If traders are given license to use leverage to buy into rising asset markets, then the trading division should be charged a cost of capital high enough to reflect the risks involved.
10. The expression "In any case, the greediest employees may be the ones most likely to usher in the next banking crisis" is used to support the proposal that te banks' capital be properly allocated and traders be restricted in their transactions and risk-taking, because the greediest employees may bring in banking crisis
again, so the banks are suggested to let them go. A threat to quit will be pretty hollow, given the state of investment banking. And few traders will have the clout to set up their own hedge funds in today's market conditions.
Over the 30 years, I have travelled on business on a yearly basis, my footprints found all across China with the only exceptions of Tibet, Inner Mongolia and Macao. It is regretful that my rushing on the long journeys leaves me heavy with the fatigue of travel and unable to savor the soothing and pleasing landscape of mountains and waters. Their tranquil beauty fades away like floating clouds, leaving only a vague impression without the exploration of the secluded realm of beauty. I cling to my own views on everything, feeling it beneath myself to echo those of others. Whether to evaluate poetry or painting, I tend to forsake what others treasure but cherish what others abandon. According to the Buddhist, the world is as how you feel it. Thus, it all depends on your perspective whether the scenic spots are good or not. Some of them, famous as they are, are not to your taste while others, obscure as they are, are the wonderland to you. And here, I present to you, and share with you, my numerous travels in life.