SECTION 1 LISTENING TEST 45 minutes
Part A Spot Dictation
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear a passage and read the same passage with blanks in it. Fill in each of the blanks with the word or words you have heard on the tape. Write your answer in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET. Remember you will hear the passage ONLY ONCE.
Americans have four primary avenues for making friends: at work, at school, through a hobby or a _________ (1) such as volunteer work and discussion group, or through a family or __________ (2).
In American culture, a job is more than the work that one performs between the hours of 9 a.m. and __________(3). Work becomes a major socializing influence. Many young mothers who __________(4) their jobs to care for small children remark on the loneliness of their new lifestyles because they have lost their forum for __________(5).
A great number of American employers recognize business social ________(6) and use it to build a family atmosphere on the job so that employees will feel __________(7) in their work environment. Some employers arrange company get-togethers in their home or at a _________(8). American companies have at least one __________(9) annually, usually at Christmas time. Many corporations have __________(10) where employees and administrators alike dress _________(11) to play games such as baseball and volleyball.
Top American administrators often hold social gatherings __________(12). Depending upon the size of the employer’s home and the number of _________(13). These social gatherings may be picnics, pool parties, or __________(14). If the company is large, an employer may hold what Americans call __________(15). For an open house, the employer will invite his employees to come to his home ___________(16) between 1 p.m. on a certain day. Those invited usually stay for _________(17), chatting with the other guests and their host. People come and go __________(18) during the designated hours, and the host keeps refreshments, usually ___________(19) or hors d’oeuvres and beverages, available for all who come. For such social gatherings, it is considered ___________(20) the invitation unless you have an excellent reason.
Part B Listening Comprehension
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear several short statements. These statements will be spoken ONLY ONCE, and you will not find them written on the paper; so you must listen carefully. When you hear a statement, read the answer choices and decide which one is closest in meaning to the statement you have heard. Then write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
1. (A) Going shopping is much more exhaustive than shopping on the Internet.
(B) For me, taking a rest is better than surfing the Internet or shopping.
(C) I am not sure if I should take a break to work in the garden this morning.
(D) My friend and I have to finish our annual report by this weekend.
2. (A) It is hardly true that Mr Johnson is a new employee with such initiatives.
(B) We are not sure if Mr Johnson is satisfied with his working environment.
(C) Usually new employees will not take such initiatives as Mr Johnson does.
(D) Mr Johnson is really very friendly as he helps us with our working initiatives.
3. (A) What are the differences between marketing and cost-effective publicity?
(B) Could you say something on the subject of cost-effective publicity?
(C) How much will the conference on marketing and sales cost us?
(D) When will the subject of the 50-minute conference be publicized?
4. (A) Children will directly or indirectly affect what their parents purchase.
(B) Growing children will have special needs that their parents cannot satisfy.
(C) The needs for special food and clothing are more obvious in girls.
(D) It is necessary for parents to influence what their children eat and wear.
5. (A) The apple is one of the fruits that can lower your blood sugar.
(B) Apples are sugar-containing fruits that may raise your blood sugar.
(C) Although it is sugar-containing, the apple is a kind of healthy fruits.
(D) For those who are on a diet, an apple a day is enough because it digests slowly.
6. (A) We decided to purchase a camera for our online course.
(B) I know that we cannot beat the price for the camera on the Net.
(C) The order is that we need to buy the camera cheaper on the Internet.
(D) The camera we bought is more expensive than I expected.
7. (A) The problem of inflation could be worsened due to rising unemployment and wage explosion.
(B) Because of the rise of unemployment during inflation, there could be a wage explosion.
(C) The most serious economic problem in the wake of inflation is a possible wage explosion.
(D) A possible way to curb inflation and rising unemployment is to raise the workers' wages dramatically.
8. (A) This kind of tax on imported goods is unnecessary.
(B) To practice economy, the government imposes a tax.
(C) A tariff is recommended by our economists.
(D) The tariff is a government tax on imported goods.
9. (A) We had planned to sell $120,000 worth of this new product.
(B) We had a promotion plan for our product that costs $ 360,000.
(C) Originally, there were 3 promotion plans for the new product.
(D) The sales figure of our new product had reached a record high.
10. (A) The committee voted against the proposed project.
(B) The committee approved the proposed project.
(C) The committee considered the short report well written.
(D) The committee was convinced by the documented report.
II. Talks and Conversations
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear several short talks and conversations. After each of these, you will hear a few questions. Listen carefully because you will hear the talk or conversation and questions ONLY ONCE. When you hear a question, read the four answer choices and choose the best answer to that question. Then write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
11. (A) Discussing inflation with the man.
(B) Helping her parents pay for debts.
(C) Seeking a permanent job overseas.
(D) Studying in a foreign country.
12. (A) Her parents' unwillingness to pay her tuition.
(B) Her desire to earn as much as possible.
(C) The rising cost of living through inflation.
(D) The fact that she is an overseas student.
13. (A) The education centre.
(B) The university bookstore.
(C) The university library.
(D) The student cafeteria.
14. (A) She will use her study time more effectively.
(B) She will buy second-hand books from the store.
(C) She will spend her money on something else.
(D) She will devote more time to working extra hours.
15. (A) A palm reader.
(B) A speech therapist.
(C) A student.
(D) A teacher.
16. (A) She was ill.
(B) She was afraid.
(C) She was anxious.
(D) She was excited.
17. (A) 50.
18. (A) Her anxiety.
(B) Her mistake.
(C) Her excitement.
(D) Her success.
19. (A) He was at a news conference.
(B) He was on a business trip.
(C) He was traveling with the company's CEO.
(D) He was negotiating with a New York agent.
20. (A) The company's top executives.
(B) Producers and servicemen.
(C) Agents and customers.
(D) Managers from home and abroad.
21. (A) 220.
22. (A) The loudspeakers.
(B) The visual aids.
(C) The hall capacity.
(D) The lunch menu.
23. (A) Working is more important than having a holiday.
(B) A driver should be more careful than a pedestrian.
(C) In driving, it is always safety that comes first.
(D) It is dangerous to drive fast in crowded areas.
24. (A) Because they may not judge speeds very well.
(B) Because they may step into the road for convenience.
(C) Because they cannot run very fast.
(D) Because they may become nervous easily.
25. (A) Shoppers.
(B) Traffic police.
(C) Young people.
(D) The handicapped.
26. (A) Signal to a school crossing patrol.
(B) Slow down or stop to let people cross.
(C) Overtake other drivers for safety.
(D) Watch out for a Stop-Children sign.
27. (A) Programme writing.
(B) Note-takind techniques.
(C) Handwriting analysis.
(D) Sample collecting.
28. (A) A good self-controlled personality.
(B) An introspective nature.
(C) A friendly and sociable disposition.
(D) A mix of interest and emotion.
29. (A) Socially-minded people.
(B) Scientists and intellectuals.
(C) Mediocre writers.
(D) Friendly companions.
30. (A) The rounded, medium size of the letters.
(B) The small open a's and o's.
(C) The wide spaces between the words.
(D) The upright slant and the signature.
Part C Listening and Translation
I. Sentence Translation
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear 5 sentences in English. You will hear the sentences ONLY ONCE. After you have heard each sentence, translate it into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
II. Passage Translation
Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear 2 passages in English. You will hear the passages ONLY ONCE. After you have heard each passage, translate it into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET. You may take notes while you are listening.
SECTION 2 STUDY SKILLS 45 minutes
Directions: In this section, you will read several passages. Each passage is followed by several questions based on its content. You are to choose ONE best answer, (A), (B),(C) or (D), to each question. Answer all the questions following each passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage and write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
Mankind’s fascination with gold is as oid as civilization itself. The ancient Egyptians esteemed gold, which had religious significance to them, and King Tutankhamen was buried in a solid-gold coffin 3300 years ago.
People have always longed to possess gold. Unfortunately, this longing has also brought out the worst in the human character. The Spanish conquistadores robbed palaces, temples, and graves, and killed thousands of Indians in their ruthless search for gold. Often the only rule in young California during the days of the gold rush was exercised by the mob with a rope. Even today, the economic running of South Africa’s gold mines depends largely on the employment of black laboures who are paid about ?40 a month, plus room and board, and who must work in conditions that can only be described as cruel. About 400 miners are killed in mine accidents in South Africa each year, or one for every two tons of gold produced.
Much of gold’s value lies in its scarcity. Only about 80,000 tons have been mined in the history of the world. All of it could be stored in a vault 60 feet square, or a supertanker.
Great Britain was the first country to adopt the gold standard, when the Master of the Mint, Sir Isaac Newton, established a fixed price for gold in 1717. But until the big discoveries of gold in the last half of the nineteenth century—starting in California in 1848 and later in Australia and South Africa—there simply wasn’t enough gold around for all the trading nations to link their currencies to the precious metal.
An out-of-work prospector named George Harrison launched South Africa into the gold age in 1886 when he discovered the metal on a farm near what is now Johannesburg. Harrison was given a ?12 reward by the farmer. He then disappeared and reportedly was eaten by a lion.
Historically, the desire to hoard gold at home has been primarily an occupation of the working and peasant classes, who have no faith in paper money. George Bernard Shaw defended their instincts eloquently: ‘You have to choose between trusting to the natural stability of gold and the natural stability of the honesty and intelligence of the members of the government’, he said, ‘and with due respect to these gentlemen, I advise you ... to vote for gold.’
1. It can be inferred from the passage that during the days of the gold-rush in California ________.
(A) people had to mark out their gold claims with a rope
(B) people carried ropes instead of guns
(C) hanging was a common form of punishment
(D) the rope was the symbol of law and order
2. One of the problems with gold is that ________.
(A) it loses its shape too easily
(B) it changes the human characters
(C) it entails danger to the miners
(D) it costs money to produce .
3. According to the passage, gold has always been considered a precious metal mainly because ________.
(A) money is made of it
(B) it is rare
(C) a small quantity goes a long way
(D) it has religious significance
4. After the big gold discoveries in the late nineteenth century ________.
(A) the trading nations adopted the gold standard
(B) the trading nations were unable to get enough gold
(C) gold coins were used by most nations
(D) gold was considered to be a kind of precious metal
5. George Bernard Shaw thought that ________.
(A) the members of the government were honest and intelligent
(B) the value of gold was likely to change unexpectedly
(C) gold was more valuable than paper money
(D) one could place more faith in gold than in politicians
Let us take a brief look at the planet on which we live. As Earth hurtles through space at a speed of 70,000 miles an hour, it spins, as we all know, on its axis, which causes it to be flattened at the Poles. Thus if you were to stand at sea level at the North or South Pole you would be 13 miles nearer the centre of the earth than if you stood on the Equator.
The earth is made up of three major layers—a central core, probably metallic, some 4000 miles across, a surrounding layer of compressed rock, and to top it all a very thin skin of softer rock, only about 20 to 40 miles thick—-that’s about as thin as the skin of an apple, talking in relative terms.
The pressure on the central core is unimaginable. It has been calculated that at the centre it is 60 million pounds to the square inch, and this at a temperature of perhaps 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The earth’s interior, therefore, would seem to be of liquid metal—and evidence for this is given by the behaviour of earthquakes.
When an earthquake occurs, shock waves radiate from the centre just as waves radiate outwards from the point where a stone drops into a pond. And these waves pulsate through the earth’s various layers. Some waves descend vertically and pass right through the earth, providing evidence for the existence of the core and an indication that it is fluid rather than solid. Thus, with their sensitive instruments, the scientists who study earthquakes, the seismologists, can in effect X-ray the earth.
Iceland is one of the most active volcanic regions of the world. And it was to Iceland that Jules Verne sent the hero of his book A Journey to the Centre of the Earth. This intrepid explorer clambered down the opening of an extinct volcano and followed its windings until he reached the earth’s core. There he found great oceans, and continents with vegetation. This conception of a hollow earth we now know to be false. In the 100 years since Jules Verne published his book, the science of vulcanology, as it is called, has made great strides. But even so the deepest man has yet penetrated is about 10,000 feet. This hole, the Robinson Deep mine in South Africa, barely scratches the surface; so great is the heat at 10,000 feet that were it not for an elaborate air-conditioning system, the miners working there would be roasted. Oil borings down to 20,000 feet have shown that the deeper they go, the hotter it becomes.
The temperature of the earth at the centre is estimated to be anything between 3,000 and 11,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Some scientists believe that this tremendous heat is caused by the breaking-down of radio-active elements, which release large amounts of energy and compensate for the loss of heat from the earth’s surface. If this theory is correct, then we are all living on top of a natural atomic powerhouse.
6. The outer layer of the earth is compared to the skin of an apple because ________.
(A) it is about 20 to 40 miles thick
(B) it is thin in proportion to the earth’s mass
(C) it is softer than the central core
(D) it is thinner than the surrounding layer
7. Which of the following cannot explain why the interior of the earth is fluid?
(A) There is great pressure at the centre.
(B) Earthquake waves can move vertically.
(C) The outer layer is made of rock.
(D) The heat at the centre is too great.
8. The Robinson Deep mine in South Africa is ________.
(A) too deep to work in
(B) too hot to work in
(C) close to the centre
(D) still in use
9. Since the publication of Jules Verne’s book it has been proved that ________.
(A) the centre of the earth is not hollow
(B) oil borings cannot go deeper than 20,000 feet
(C) there are active volcanic regions at the centre
(D) the earth is not in danger of exploding
10. What is the best title for the passage?
(A) The Earthquake.
(B) The Underworld.
(C) The Volcanic Regions.
(D) The Great Oceans.
Many people will have heard of the Alexander technique but have only a vague idea what it is about. Until earlier this year, I didn’t have the faintest idea about it. But, hunched over a computer screen one day, I noticed that the neck- and backache I regularly suffered were more painful than usual. I consulted a doctor, who said: “I can treat the symptoms by massaging your neck and upper back. But you actually have bad posture. That is what you need to get sorted out. Go off and learn the Alexander technique.”
I had regularly been told by friends and family that I tend to slouch in chairs but had thought bad posture was something one was born with and could do nothing about. That is not true. Dentists and car mechanics, among others, tend to develop bad posture from leaning over patients or engine bays. Mothers often stress and strain their necks and backs lifting and carrying children, and those of us who sit in front of computers all day are almost certainly not doing our bodies any favours.
A few clicks on the web and I found an Alexander technique teacher, Tanya Shoop, in my area of south London and booked a first appointment. Three months later I am walking straighter and sitting better, while my neck and back pain are things of the past. I feel taller, too, which I may be imagining, but the technique can increase your height by up to five centimeters if you were badly slumped beforehand.
The teaching centres on the neck, head and back. It trains you to use your body less harshly and to perform familiar movements and actions with less effort. There is very little effort in the lessons themselves, which sets apart the Alexander technique from pilates or yoga, which are exercise-based.
A typical lesson involves standing in front of a chair and learning to sit and stand with minimal effort. You spend some time lying on a bench with your knees bent to straighten the spine and relax your body while the teacher moves your arms and legs to train you to move them correctly.
The key is learning to break the bad habits accumulated over years. Try, for example, folding your arms the opposite way to normal. It feels odd, doesn’t it? This is an example of a habit the body has formed which can be hard to break. Many of us carry our heads too far back and tilted skyward. The technique teaches you to let go of the muscles holding the head back, allowing it to resume its natural place on the summit of our spines. The head weighs four to six kilos, so any misalignment can cause problems for the neck and body.
So who was Alexander and how did he come up with the technique? Frederick Matthias Alexander, an Australian theatrical orator born in 1869, found in his youth that his voice was failing during performance. He analysed himself and realized his posture was bad. He worked on improving it, with dramatic results. He brought his technique to London 100 years ago and quickly gathered a following that included some very famous people. He died in 1955, having established a teacher-training school in London, which is thriving today.
So if you are slouching along the road one day, feeling weighed down by your troubles, give a thought to the Alexander technique. It could help you walk tall again.
11. The writer first learnt about the Alexander technique ________.
(A) after consulting someone about her problems
(B) after she suddenly developed a bad back
(C) when massage failed to alleviate her back pain
(D) when she was browsing the Internet
12. The Alexander technique is different from yoga in that familiar movements ________.
(A) are learnt through one-to-one tutorial
(B) need more energy and effort than we think
(C) are not to be performed strenuously
(D) are not required in the exercise
13. According to the passage, the body appears to form habits that ________.
(A) inevitably cause physical pain
(B) can be difficult to change
(C) are a consequence of actions we perform
(D) develop in early childhood
14. It is suggested that Frederick Alexander ________.
(A) believed in the benefits of exercise
(B) invented an alternative to yoga
(C) developed a form of exercise for actors
(D) recovered his vocal powers
15. What is the writer’s main purpose in the article?
(A) To recommend regular physical exercise.
(B) To describe the dreadful nature of the backache.
(C) To suggest that back problems can be remedied.
(D) To explain the widespread occurrence of back pain.
The earth is our home. We must take care of it, for ourselves and for the next generation. This means preserving the quality of our environment.
Consume, consume, consume! Our society is consumer oriented—dangerously so. To keep the wheels of industry turning, we manufacture consumer goods in endless quantities, and in the process, are rapidly exhausting our natural resources. But this is only half the problem. What do we do with manufactured products when they are worn out? They must be disposed of, but how and where? Unsightly junkyards full of rusting automobiles already surround every city in the nation. Americans throw away 80 billion bottles and cans each year, enough to build more than ten stacks to the moon. There isn’t room for much more waste, and yet the factories grind on. They cannot stop because everyone wants a job. Our standard of living, one of the highest in the world, requires the consumption of manufactured products in ever-increasing amounts. Man, about to be buried in his own waste, is caught in a vicious cycle.
It wasn’t always like this. Only 100 years ago, man lived in harmony with nature. There weren’t so many people then and their wants were fewer. Whatever wastes were produced could be absorbed by nature and were soon covered over. Today this harmonious relationship is threatened by man’s lack of foresight and planning, and by his carelessness and greed. For man is slowly poisoning his environment.
Pollution is a “dirty” word. To pollute means to contaminate—to spoil something by introducing impurities which make it unfit or unclean to use. Pollution comes in many forms. We see it, smell it, taste it, drink it, and stumble through it. We literally live in and breathe pollution, and not surprisingly, it is beginning to threaten our health, our happiness, and our very civilization.
Where is this all to end? Are we turning the world into a gigantic dump, or is there hope that we can solve the pollution problem? Fortunately, solutions are in sight. A few of them are positively ingenious.
Take the problem of discarded automobiles, for instance. Each year over 40,000 of them are abandoned in New York City alone. Eventually the discards end up in a junkyard. But cars are too bulky to ship as scrap to a steel mill. They must first be flattened. This is done in a giant compressor which can reduce a Cadillac to the size of a television set in a matter of minutes. Any leftover scrap metal is mixed with concrete and made into exceptionally strong bricks that are used in buildings and bridges. Man’s ingenuity has come to his rescue.
What about water pollution? More and more cities are building sewage-treatment plants. Instead of being dumped into a nearby river or lake, sewage is sent through a system of underground pipes to a giant tank where the water is separated from the solid material, purified, and returned for reuse to the community water supply. The solid material, called sludge, is converted into fertilizer. The sludge can also be made into bricks.
16. According to the passage, what is the immediate problem caused by the consumption of manufactured products?
(A) Exhaustion of natural resources.
(B) Waste disposal.
(C) Pollution from industry.
(D) Money-oriented mentality.
17. About a century ago, people lived in relative harmony with their environment as ________.
(A) their wastes were covered over by nature
(B) they were more careful and less greedy
(C) their junkyards didn’t grow tall yet
(D) they had foresight and planning
18. Which of the following in NOT one of the stages in dealing with discarded automobiles?
(A) Flattening them to the size of a television set.
(B) Building more gigantic junkyards.
(C) Shipping them as scrap to a steel mill for new vehicles.
(D) Using them as ingredients for bricks.
19. The solution to water pollution is ________.
(A) storing the sewage in a giant tank
(B) dumping more sewage into the distant ocean
(C) building more sewage disposal plants
(D) replacing underground pipes full of sewage
20. According to the passage, what can be made into fertilizer?
(B) Scrap metal.
In the 1960s, the Pharmaceutical Company Sandoz marketed its tranquilizer Serentil with ads suggesting the drug be prescribed to “the newcomer in town who can’t make friends...The woman who can’t get along with her new daughter-in-law. The executive who can’t accept retirement.” But the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stopped the ads. Drugs are supposed to treat illnesses, the agency said, not the changes of living.
Isn’t that an unusual idea? The FDA was worried back then about an overmedicated society. Today 7% of Americans are on antidepressants (many more have tried them), and ads try to persuade people to buy drugs for problems like fatigue, loneliness and sadness. Still, drug companies aren’t the (sole) villain. Horwitz, dean of social and behavioral sciences at Rutgers, and Wakefield, an expert on mental-illness diagnosis at New York University, persuasively argue that many instances of normal sadness are now misdiagnosed as depressive disorder. They also point out that the capacity to feel sad is an evolutionarily selected trait that we might not want to drug away.
We’ve been living in an age of sadness for at least two decades. But while it’s tempting to blame our culture—fear of terrorists, too much caffeine—there’s a more straightforward explanation for the boom in sadness. In 1980, the American Psychiatric Association published a new definition of depression that was a radical departure from the old one, which had described “depressive neurosis” as “an excessive reaction of depression due to an internal conflict or to an identifiable event such as the loss of a love object.” To be diagnosed with major depressive disorder today, you need have only five symptoms for two weeks, which can include depressed mood, weight gain, insomnia, fatigue and indecisiveness. The definition does make an exception for bereavement: if you recently lost a loved one, such symptoms are not considered disordered. But it doesn’t make exceptions for other things that make us sad—divorce or financial stress.
Still, is there anything wrong with medicating normal sadness if you don’t mind side effects? Horwitz and Wakefield take no position on this. They point out that women giving birth take painkillers even though pain is a normal part of the process. But they also note that “loss responses are part of our biological heritage.” Nonhuman primates separated from sexual partners or peers have physiological responses that correlate with sadness. Human infants express despair to evoke sympathy from others. These sadness responses suggest sorrow is genetic and that it is useful for attracting social support, protecting us from aggressors and teaching us that whatever prompted the sadness—say, getting fired because you were always late to work—is behavior to be avoided. This is a brutal economic approach to the mind, but it makes sense: we are sometimes meant to suffer emotional pain so that we will make better choices.
21. Which of the following is the passage primarily concerned with?
(A)Sadness is a normal human emotion that serves a specific purpose.
(B) Sadness makes humans strive for happiness or contentment.
(C) Sadness and happiness are definitely two sides of the same coin.
(D) Sadness is now diagnosed as depressive disorder.
22. Why did the FDA stop the drug advertisements for Serentil?
(A) The drug did not treat illnesses as it should.
(B) The drug changed the people’s way of life.
(C) The drug had possible serious side effects.
(D) The drug was recommended to the wrong people.
23. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a symptom of major depressive disorder?
(A) Inability to sleep.
(B) Grief over death.
(D) Weight gain.
24. The word “bereavement” (para.3) means ________.
(A) loss of one’s pets
(B) loss of one’s beloved
(C) loss of one’s mind
(D) loss of one’s valuables
25. According to the author, sadness responses are ________.
It looks unlikely that medical science will abolish the process of ageing. But it no longer looks impossible.
“In the long run,” as John Maynard Keynes observed, “we are all dead.” True. But can the short run be elongated in a way that makes the long run longer? And if so, how, and at what cost? People have dreamt of immortality since ancient times. Now, with the growth of biological knowledge that has marked the past few decades, a few researchers believe it might be within reach.
To think about the question, it is important to understand why organisms—people included—age in the first place. People are like machines: they wear out. That much is obvious. However, a machine can always be repaired. A good mechanic with a stock of spare parts can keep it going indefinitely. Eventually, no part of the original may remain, but it still carries on, like Lincoln’s famous axe that had had three new handles and two new blades.
The question, of course, is whether the machine is worth repairing. It is here that people and nature disagree. Or, to put it slightly differently, two bits of nature disagree with each other. From the individual’s point of view, survival is an imperative. A fear of death is a sensible evolved response and, since ageing is a sure way of dying, it is no surprise that people want to stop it in its tracks. Moreover, even the appearance of ageing can be harmful. It reduces the range of potential sexual partners who find you attractive and thus, again, curbs your reproduction.
The paradox is that the individual’s evolved desire not to age is opposed by another evolutionary force: the disposable soma. The soma is all of a body’s cells apart from the sex cells. The soma’s role is to get those sex cells, and thus the organism’s genes, into the next generation. If the soma is a chicken, then it really is just an egg’s way of making another egg. And if evolutionary logic requires the soma to age and die in order for this to happen, so be it. Which is a pity, for evolutionary logic does, indeed, seem to require that.
The argument is this. All organisms are going to die of something eventually. That something may be an accident, a fight, a disease or an encounter with a hungry predator. There is thus a premium on reproducing early rather than conserving resources for a future that may never come. The reason why repairs are not perfect is that they are costly and resources invested in them might be used for reproduction instead. Often, therefore, the body’s mechanics prefer lash-ups to complete rebuilds—or simply do not bother with the job at all. And if that is so, the place to start looking for longer life is in the repair shop.
26. The word “elongated” (para.2) is closest in meaning to “________”.
27. Why does the author mention Lincoln’s axe?
(A) To tell people that a simple tool can be repaired thoroughly.
(B) To make people realize that immortality is not possible.
(C) To illustrate the fact that the prospect of growing old is intolerable.
(D) To suggest an anti-ageing approach that will reproduce itself.
28. What do we know from the passage about people and nature?
(A) People and nature exist in harmony and hardly disagree.
(B) The evolutionary force in nature helps delay the ageing process.
(C) People seem now in a position to harness nature.
(D) Death is the reality in nature people should come to terms with.
29. For whom does the author probably write this passage?
(A) General readers.
(B) Health service workers.
(C) Medical scientists.
(D) Elderly people.
30. It is implied in the passage that ________.
(A) people put a premium on youth and physical appearance
(B) death is treated as a matter of course.
(C) evolutionary force makes immortality possible
(D) reproduction is a useful alternative to longer life
SECTION 3 TRANSLATION TEST (1) 30 minutes
Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
In a slowing U.S. economy, job opportunities are shaped by uncertainty. As president of a small college, I am keenly aware of the job market that awaits this year’s graduates. The recent news that Bear Stearns was nullifying a few hundred job offers to business school students fits a pattern of corporate downsizing that isn’t lost on college campuses across the USA. But even with the darkening economic clouds, rays of good news await this year’s graduates. Sure, companies are laying off workers, but many are also looking for new talent, especially at the entry level.
As more than a million entrants flood the job market, students should know that in a global marketplace, language skills will go a long way. So will flexibility. If a grad is ready to accept an entry-level job, give a little on job requirements and move if the company asks, chances are he’ll land a job. So despite the rising job losses, a new graduate should embrace the market as the first challenge of a long career.
SECTION 4 TRANSLATION TEST (2) 30 minutes
Directions: Translate the following passage into English and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
SECTION 1 LISTENING TEST
Part A Spot Dictation
1. common interest
2. mutual friend connection
3. 5 p.m.
5. adult interaction
7. comfortable and secure
8. local restaurant
9. major function
10. annual summer picnics
11. in jeans and T-shirts
12. in their own homes
13. his employees
14. formal banquets
15. an open house
17. 1 to 2 hours
18. as they please
19. light snacks
20. poor practice to refuese
Part B Listening Comprehension
1. (B) I really cannot decide whether to dig up information from the Internet for our annual report over the weekend or go shopping with my friends. But maybe a break would do me good.
2. (C) Rarely do new employees take such initiatives as Mr. Johnson does. Usually they’ll wait until they’re familiar with their working environment.
3. (B) The subject of the conference is marketing and sales. And I was wondering if you could give us a talk, say, fifty minutes or so, on cost-effective publicity.
4. (A) If a family has a baby, it brings about special food and clothing needs. When that child grows up, he or she will more directly influence their parents' choice of daily commodities.
5. (C) Not all sugar-containing foods are bad. For example, an apple has its main calories come from sugar, but it’s surrounded by fiber, so it digests slowly and keeps blood sugar under control.
6. (D) Had I known that we could buy exactly the same type of camera cheaper on the Internet, I would not have placed the order and paid for this one.
7. (A) By far, the most serious economic problem is that of inflation, now being accelerated by the rise of unemployment, and threatened further by a possible wage explosion.
8. (D) According to our economists, a tariff is a kind of tax imposed by the government on goods imported from abroad.
9. (A) Due to our vigorous advertising campaign, the sales figure for our new product has reached 360,000 dollars this month, three times of our original promotion plan.
10. (B) Although the short report was well written and documented, it failed to convince the committee to vote against the proposed project.
II. Talks and Conversations
M: Well, as an overseas student, I suppose you don't have a great deal of earning power, so inflation must have affected you to some extent.
W：Yes, it affects me in that my parents aren't able to afford to pay my tuition. So I've been forced into taking part of my study time to devote to earning as much as I can to help pay for that.
M: You mean you've been taking part-time jobs? What kind of jobs are they?
W: There are quite a number of par-time jobs available for overseas students here. There are the student cafeteria, university libraries, and of course, the summer course programs offered by the education centre. Presently, I've been working in the university book store, the second-hand book division.
M: But that kind of cuts into your studies, I suppose.
W: It does, to a certain extent. But I found that with the added pressure of having to earn money, I use my study time more effectively and get more done.
M: So in that sense, it's kind of a good thing for you.
11．(D) What is the woman doing now?
12．(C) According to the conversation, which of the following is the major reason for the woman to work part-time while in the university?
13．(B) Where is the woman working part-time now?
14．(A) What will the woman do with the added pressure of having to earn money herself?
If you want to improve your memory, be confident! That may sound a bit ridiculous, but that is what happened you learn to ride a bicycle or drive a car, isn’t it? At first, you did it awkwardly, but the more you practiced, the surer you were. The activity had changed from a set of awkward rules to nerve-ending responses. You had it on your finger tips. A while back I had each student in class learn the first and last names of everyone else, all in one fifty minute period. I had never done this before myself. And I was expected to perform when everyone else had finished. There I was encouraging everyone while I was getting sweaty hands and developing considerable anxiety.
What if the teacher failed? It was hard but I did manage with one or two mistakes. But after that session, it got easier and easier. Now I am absolutely sure I can do it with 120 students each semester. That is 240 bits of information. Not only that, but I am not at all worried, no sweaty palms. The less anxious I am, the better I perform. That is the point. Success makes you more confident and confidence makes it easier to succeed. So try it till you succeed. Then try a few more times just to convince yourself.
15．(D) Who is the speaker?
16．(C) Why did the woman get sweaty hands when remembering names?
17．(B) How many students does the woman probably teach each semester?
18．(D) According to the woman, what makes her more confident?
M: Good morning, Patricia. How are you these days?
W: Fine, thanks, Bill. Glad to see you again. What news can you bring from your business trip to our headquarters in New York last week?
M: Well, not bad ones. During my stay in New York last week, I met our company's CEO Mr. Johnson. He wants us to put on a local conference sometime next month. I remember you made most of the arrangements for our last conference, and things went so smoothly. I thought I couldn't do better than ask you for some tips.
W: I'll be glad to help. Is it a sales conference again?
M: Yes, in a way. It's mainly for agents from home and abroad, and we're inviting a few of our influential customers. The objectives are mainly to introduce the products we'll put in on the markets next season, to describe our services to customers and so on.
W: And how many people are expected to attend this time? Last time, it was about 220.
M: We're counting on 300 this time. No more than 350.
W: Then we can not use the seaside conference hall again. It has a capacity of only 250.
M: That's the trouble. I was thinking of the President Convention Center, which has a larger capacity. Besides, I haven't worked out all those details yet. Then there are other things to arrange, like loudspeakers and visual aids. I'm going to make a checklist.
W: Yes, I did that, too. I’ll be glad to give you a hand.
M: That would be great, Patricia. I’d very much like to chance of using some of your experience. May I invite you to lunch today? And then we could have a bit of planning session about it all afterwards.
19. (B) What was the man doing last week?
20. (C) Who will be invited to attend a local conference next month?
21. (A) According to the woman, about how many people attended the last conference in the seaside conference hall?
22. (D) Which of the following will NOT be included in the man's checklist for his planning of the conference?
If you are driving a car to work or to a seaside resort, safety is always the top priority. Here are some of the tips for driving safely.
First, drive carefully and slowly when pedestrians are about, particularly in crowded shopping streets. When you see a bus stop or near a parked mobile shop, Watch out for pedestrians coming from behind parked or stopped vehicles, or from other places where you might not be able to see them. Three out of four pedestrians killed or seriously injured in traffic accidents are either under the age of 15 or over 60. The young and the elderly may not judge speeds very well, and may step into the road when you do not expect them. Give them plenty of time to cross the road. Also, stop and wait patiently for the blind or disabled people.
Second, drive slowly near schools, and look out for children getting on or off school buses. Stop when signaled to do so by a school crossing patrol showing a stop-children sign. Be careful near a parked ice-cream van. Children are more interested in ice-cream than in traffic.
Finally, when coming to a zebra crossing, be ready to slow down or stop to let people cross. You must give way once they have stepped on to a crossing. Signal to other drivers that you mean to slow down or stop. Give yourself more time to slow down or stop on wet or icy roads. Remember, under no circumstances should you overtake other vehicles just before a zebra crossing.
23. (C) What is the main idea of the talk?
24. (A) Why are young and elderly people more likely to get killed or injured in traffic accidents?
25. (D) According to the talk, for whom should a driver stop the car and wait patiently?
26. (B) What should a driver do just before a zebra crossing?
M: And now with us on today’s program we have Lucy Draper. She is an expert on handwriting analysis and has published a number of books on the subject. Lucy, welcome.
W: Thank you very much.
M: It is well known that there are many different features of one’s handwriting. What are these features exactly?
W: Well, there is the slant of the writing, the pressure and spacing, the capital letters, the margins and the signature. They all play a part in handwriting analysis.
M: Perhaps we can begin by looking at the question of slant.
W: Okay. Well, basically there are three kinds of slant: right, left and upright, though sometimes you may come across a mixture. If your handwriting slants to the right, it shows a friendly and sociable disposition. You enjoy human contact and like to have people around you. However, if your handwriting definitely slants to the left, it shows an introspective nature, often shy and reserved. You are more interested in your own feelings than other people’s. If your handwriting is upright, it reveals very good self-control, and your head usually controls your heart.
M: What about size of handwriting? Does the size of one’s handwriting tell us something?
W: Yes. Well, basically very large handwriting belongs to the extroverts and socially-minded people. They enjoy attention and admiration. The small writer, on the other hand, is more concerned with things than people. Small writing is often found in the handwriting of many scientists and intellectual. They generally are not interested in an active social life. Medium handwriting shows a good balance between mind and emotion. Such writers are generally able to communicate and mix without being either reserved or over familiar.
M: So let’s put theory to practice. What would you say to this sample of handwriting?
W: Well, this more rounded, medium-sized handwriting shows a lively personality who enjoys companionship. She is talkative. See the small open As and Os, and has a friendly approach to people. But the wide space between the words indicates that she can keep her personal distance when necessary. Whose handwriting is this?
M: Well, to tell you the truth, that’s my wife’s handwriting.
27. (C) What is the woman’s specialized field of research?
28. (A) According to the woman, what does an upright slant in one’s handwriting reveal about the writer?
29. (B) Who are more likely to be concerned with things rather than people?
30. (C) What feature of handwriting makes the woman say that the man’s wife can keep her personal distance when necessary?
Part C Listening and Translation
I. Sentence Translation
1. Our online courses are open to the public for immediately enrolment. They include everything our students need for study. Our students love the quality as well as the convenience.
2. In 1986, there were over 40 million computers in the world, while by 2006, that number climbed to about 800 million, a twenty-fold increase in two decades.
3. In an age of fast communication via telephone and computer, face-to-face meetings might seem like wasting our time and energy. However, they are still an important part of doing business.
4. There are ten clubs here representing foreign students on campus. Their main purpose is to get students from the same countries together, so we won’t get too homesick and can help each other.
5. Listening is what we do first and most. The average person spends 45% of his daily communication time in listening, with the rest 55% in writing, reading and speaking.
II. Passage Translation
1. I am here tonight to wish your club a happy birthday. Now, I myself have reached that stage in life where I would like to have my birthdays remembered but not my age. I suppose I am what is called middle-aged, which is when you start eating what is good for you and not what you like. I am proud of your club because it is set up for our senior citizens. This is a place you can come to for peace and quiet, where you have tea and chat with people of your own age group.
2. Researchers have found that daily walking may improve sleep quality. They have also noticed that only those who exercise in the morning have the beneficial effects on sleep. Those who exercised in the evening actually had more trouble falling asleep. One possible explanation is that morning versus evening exercise may affect sleep quality. Morning exercise may get the body clock in good order, and evening exercise may upset it. However, more research is needed to confirm this theory.
SECTION 2 STUDY SKILLS
Questions 1~5 C C B A D
Questions 6~10 B C D A B
Questions 11~15 A C B D C
Questions 16~20 B A B C D
Questions 21~25 A D B B C
Questions 26~30 C B D A D
SECTION 3 TRANSLATION TEST (1)
SECTION 4 TRANSLATION TEST (2)
According to a well-informed source, it was before this year's Spring Festival that Carrefour made its "first intimate contact" with Xindaxin company. Without doubt the Guangzhou Municipal Government served as the "matchmaker". The two parties "had an affinity for each other" in only a few months. What on earth is Xindaxin's appeal to Carrefour? It is of great concern to the outsiders / the public.
Mr He, general manager of Xindaxin, instead of giving any positive response to this question, just made a general / ambiguous reply that Xindaxin boasts its uniqueness in the department stores industry in Guangzhou. Mr He disclosed that Xindaxin holds 35% of the shares of the newly-established company while Carrefour owns the other 65%: "which is in conformity with the policies of departments concerned, stipulating that the Chinese side must hold no less than 35% of the shares. "