We can see the rising sun. 我们可以看到东升的旭日
He is a retired worker. 他是位退休的工人
分词后置 (i分词词组；ii 个别分词如given, left； iii 修饰不定代词 something等)
There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里
This is the question given. 这是所给的问题
There is nothing interesting. 没有有趣的东西
Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists.
Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa.
1) The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.
A. have written B. to be written C. being written D. written
答案D. 书与写作是被动关系，应用过去分词做定语表被动，相当于定语从句 which is written
2）What's the language ____ in Germany?
A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak
spoken是动词speak的过去分词形式，在句中作定语，修饰主语language, spoken 与 language有被动关系。该句可以理解为：
What's the language (which is) spoken in German?
As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.
-> Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.
If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.
-> Given more attention，the trees could have grown better.
1）_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.
A. Followed B. Followed by C. Being followed D. Having been followed
答案B. Napoleon 与follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外，还有动作正在进行之意。 followed by（被…跟随）。本题可改为： With some officials following, Napoleon inspected his army.
2）There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light.
A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed
3）_______, liquids can be changed into gases.
A. Heating B. To be heated C. Heated D. Heat
答案C. 本题要选一分词作为状语。现在分词表主动，正在进行的；过去分词表被动的，已经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者，是被动的，因而选C。它相当于一个状语从句 When it is heated，…
(Being ) used for a long time, the book looks old.
Using the book, I find it useful.
有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚，可在分词前加连词。 连词有： when，while，if though，after, before, as. 但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为同一个，如：
While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building.
waiting 和saw 的主语相同。
I found my car missing. 我发现我的车不见了。
I'll have my watch repaired. 我想把我的手表修一下。
She looked tired with cooking. 她由于忙着做饭，看上去有些疲倦。
He remained standing beside the table. 他依然站在桌旁。
generally speaking 一般说来
talking of (speaking of) 说道
strictly speaking 严格的说
judging from 从…判断
all things considered 从整体来看
taking all things into consideration 全面看来
Judging from his face, he must be ill. 从他的脸色看，他一定是病了。
Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs. 总的来说，狗比猪跑得快。 (speaking 并不是dogs 的动作)
Hearing the news, he jumped with joy. 听到这一消息，他高兴得手舞足蹈。
Arriving there, they found the boy dead. 刚一到那儿，他们就发现那男孩死了。
The secretary worked late into the night, ___a long speech for the president.
A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing
答案B. 此处没有连词，不能选D，否则出现了两个谓语动词worked和was preparing。 只能在B，C中选一个。又因前后两个动作同时发生，且与主语为主动关系，应用现在分词。
While walking in the garden，he hurt his leg. 在花园里散步时他伤了腿。
分词作时间状语，如果先与主动词的动作，且强调先后， 要用having done。
Having finished his homework, he went out.
=As he had finished his homework, he went out.
___ a reply, he decided to write again.
A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received
答案C. 本题考查分词的时态与分词的否定式。根据题意判断，分词的动作（接信）发生在谓语动词的动作（决心再写信）之前，因此用分词的完成式。分词的否定式的构成为not +分词，故选C。该句可理解为：Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again.
He is the man giving you the money. (= who gave you…) 他就是给你钱的那个人。
He is the man stopped by the car. ( = who was stopped by…)
gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned
例: a well-read person. 一个读过许多书的人
a much-travelled man 一个去过许多地方的人
a burnt-out match 烧完了的火柴