VOA 慢速英语[时事新闻] 日本科学家大隅良典获得2016年诺贝尔医学奖

来源:VOA 2019-02-25

VOA 慢速英语



Japanese Scientist Wins Nobel in Medicine 

Yushinori Ohsumi of Japan has won the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
The Nobel Assembly at Swedens Karolinska Institute announced the prize on Monday.
The institute is honoring Ohsumi for his experiments with bakers yeast in the 1990s. He studied a natural process in which cells break down and reuse some of their parts.
This process is called autophagy. The word autophagy comes from two words in the Greek language. They areauto-,” meaningself,” and phagein, meaningto eat.”
The prize committee said understanding the science behind this process has led to a better understanding of diseases such as cancer, Parkinsons and type 2 diabetes.
The Karolinska Institute said, “His discoveries opened the path to understanding the fundamental importance of autophagy in many physiological processes.”
Autophagy has been known for over 50 years, but its fundamental importance in physiology and medicine was only recognized after Yoshinori Ohsumis paradigm-shifting research,” it said.
Thanks to Ohsumi and others following in his footsteps, we now know that autophagy controls important physiological functions,” to break down and recycle cellular particles.
Ohsumi is now a professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. He told the Kyodo news agency he wasextremely honoredto get the prize.
Separately, he told Japanese broadcaster NHK he hadalways wanted to do something that other people wouldnt do.”
He said the breakdown of particles interested him.
Christer Hogg is a professor with Swedens Karolinska Institute. He said the experiments helped explain important processes in human development, from growing up, to aging, to dying from a disease.
In the very early stages, your organs and your whole body is constantly being made over againyou are growing. So you need to get rid of the old stuff and generate new structures,” he told Reuters news service.
When you undergo aging, you have structures that have to be taken away, and thisautophagyis the principle that gets rid of them.”
If you affect this systemthe genes and proteins involved in autophagyyou no longer can take care of the waste, and once it accumulates, you will get some type of disease,” he said.
The prize for physiology or medicine is the first Nobel Prize awarded each year. It is worth $930,000.
Other Nobel prizes will be announced this week and next week.
Im Caty Weaver.