Body language, especially gestures, varies among cultures. For example, a node of the head means “yes” to most of us. But in Bulgaria and Greece a node means “no” and a shake of the head means “yes”. Likewise, a sign for OK, forming a circle with our forefinger and thumb, means zero in France and money in Japan. Waving or pointing to an Arab business person would be considered rude because that is how Arabs call their dogs over. Folded arms signal pride in Finland, but disrespect in Fiji. The number of bows that the Japanese exchange on greeting each other, as well as the length and the depth of the bows, signals the social status each party feels towards each other. Italians might think your bored unless you use a lot of gestures during discussions. Many American men sit with their legs crossed with one ankle resting over the opposite knee. However, this would be considered an insult in Muslim countries, where one will never show the sole of the foot to a gust. Likewise, Americans consider eye contact very important, often not trusting someone who is afraid to look at you in the eye. But in Japan and many Latin American countries, keeping the eyes lowered is a sign of respect. To look apart in the eye is considered a sign of ill breeding and is felt to be annoying.
Q16: What gesture do Bulgarians and Greeks use to express negative responses?
Q17: What is likely to offend Arab business people?
Q18: What is considered impolite in Muslim countries?
Today I’m going to talk about tents. Camping is still one of the cheapest ways of having a holiday. And each year, over 3 million people take camping vocations, either here in Britain or aboard, mostly on the continent. Obviously, camping can’t be as comfortable as living in a permanent house, but modern tents can be very comfortable indeed, with windows, bedrooms, kitchens and sitting rooms. The most popular tent sold in Britain is the frame tent with 2 bedrooms and sleeping accommodation for 4 people. There is usually an outer tent of water-proofed fabric and a lighter inner tent or tents with a built-in ground sheet. The outer tent fits over the frame work. This is made of metal poles which are fitted together. The inner tent is attached to this frame. Generally, the inner tent is about half the area of the outer tent. The other half of the outer tent is the living area. This doesn’t usually have a ground sheet but you can buy one to fit, though it costs extra. The ordinary 4 bed frame tent doesn’t usually have a separate kitchen area, but the larger ones often do. You can buy a kitchen extension for many tents, and it’s worth buying one if you plan to stay camping in one place for more than a few days.
19. What does the speaker say about camping?
20. What does the passage tell us about the most popular tent sold in Britain?
21. What does the speaker suggest buying if you plan to stay camping in one place for more than a few days?
Andorra, one of the smallest countries in the world, is located high in the mountains between France and Spain. The country covers only 179 square miles. That is less than half the size of New York City. High, rocky mountains surround Andorra. Until the 1930s, travelers had difficulty in reaching the country. Up until that time, people in Andorra lived in the way they had lived for centuries. Most Andorrans worked as farmers. Things did not change quickly. When roads were built from France and Spain to Andorra in the 1930s, life picked up speed. Tourist began to visit the small country. These tourists brought in a lot of money to spend while visiting. Many people in Andorra found new jobs in shops or hotels. These changes helped to keep young people in Andorra. There were many more jobs than before the roads were built. Today tourists provided 80 to 90 percent of Andorra’s income. More than a million people visit each year. They come to view the rough mountains. They enjoy the quiet way of life. Most people are also interested in the ancient buildings. There are many shops for tourists to browse in, clothes, watches, wines and other items are sold at low prices in Andorra. Import fees are low, so tourists enjoy the inexpensive shopping. Most of the businesses in Andorra are owned by its citizens. There are not many foreign businesses. Some Andorrans still farm and raise sheep and cattle. But most are now involved with the tourist trade。
22. How big does the speaker say Andorra is?
23. What can be said about Andorra before the 1930s?
24. What event changed the situation in Andorra?
25. What do most people do in Andorra do nowadays?
Don’t take may English courses, they won’t help you get a decent job. Sign up for management classes, so you will be ready to join the family business when you graduate. Sound familiar? Many of us have heard suggestions like these put forward by parents or others close to us. Such comments often seem quite reasonable. Why then should suggestions like these be taken with caution? The reason is they relate to the decisions you should make. You are the one who must live with their consequences. One of the worst reasons to follow a particular path in life is that other people want you to. Decisions that affect your life should be your decisions. Decisions you make after you’ve considered various alternatives and chosen the path that suits you best. Making your own decisions does not mean that you should ignore the suggestions of others. For instance, your parents do have their own unique experiences that may make their advice helpful and having participated in a great deal of your personal history. They may have a clear view of your strength and weaknesses. Still, their views are not necessarily accurate. They may still see you as a child, and need care and protection. Or they may see only your strength or in some unfortunate cases, they may focus only on your flaws and shortcomings. People will always be giving your advice, ultimately, though you have to make your own judgments.