2011英语四级汉译英解题技巧(2)

来源:网络 2019-03-23

真题详解:2006.12

3.The victim (本来会有机会活下来) if he had been taken to hospital in time.

[解题步骤]:

第一步:由The victim if he had been taken to hospital in time.可以推出,划线处应该填写谓语动词和宾语使得主句完整,并且主句形式、时态根据后面的if he had been taken to hospital in time确定应该采取虚拟语气,是对过去的虚拟。

第二步:划分成分“本来会有机会活下来”

核心谓语动词是“本来有机会------”,“活下来”作宾语。

第三步:

1.切块对应翻译:“本来有机会------”= would have a chance to do sth,“活下来”=survive

2.重新组合:would have a chance to survive.

[正确答案]:would have/stand a chance to survive/of survival

[翻 译]:如果遇难者被及时送往医院的话,他本来会有机会活下来的。

[考察知识点]:[虚拟语气]与过去相反的虚拟语气,从句用had done,主句用would have done

有机会做某事:have/stand a chance to do sth/of sth----

[语法讲解]:“虚拟语气”
考生应该注意以下几种虚拟语气的形式:

第一种:由 “ if ”引导的虚拟句子

1. 与现在的事实相反:[If --- + were/did---, --- + would do---]

If I were you , I would marry him.
如果我是你,就会嫁给他。

2. 与过去的事实相反:[If --- + had done---, --- +would have done---]

If you had worked hard , you would have passed the exam.
如果你用功学习,就会通过考试了。

3. 与将来的事实可能相反:[If ---+ should do---, ---+ would do---]

If it should rain tomorrow , what would you do ?
如果明天下雨,你怎么办?

第二种:用在表示要求、建议、命令等的名词从句中

从句谓语形式为:“---(should ) + do sth”(在美语中should常省去) 。

类似用法的动词有:
insist (坚持) , suggest (建议) , order(命令) , propose (建议) , demand (要求) , command (命令) , advise (建议) , desire (要求、请求) , request (请求) , require (需要、要求) , ask (要求) , prefer (宁愿), recommend(推荐) , arrange ( 安排) , advocate ( 拥护、提倡) ,maintain(坚决主张)等后面的宾语从句中。

第三种:用在“It + be + important (,necessary , natural , essential , strange , absurd , amazing , annoying , desirable, surprising , vital , advisable , anxious , compulsory , crucial , imperative , eager , fitting , possible , impossible , improper , obligatory , probable , preferable , strange , urgent 等, 以及insisted , suggested , ordered , requested , arranged , recommended 等) + that ---”结构中的that 引导的主语从句中

第四种:用在It is time that --- 结构中, 表示“该干某事了”, 含建议的意思, 用动词过去式。

It is time (that) we went to bed .
咱们该睡觉了。

注意: time 前可加about (表示“大约”) 或high(表示“强调”) 等。

4.Some psychologists claim that people (出门在外时可能会感到孤独).

[解题步骤]:

第一步:由Some psychologists claim that people .可以推出,划线处应该填写谓语动词和宾语使得主句完整,并且主句时态用一般现在时。

第二步:划分成分“出门在外时可能会感到孤独”

核心谓语动词是“可能会感到”,“孤独”作宾语,“出门在外时”作状语。

第三步:

1.切块对应翻译:“可能会感到”= may feel,“孤独”=lonely,“出门在外时”be away from home.

2.重新组合:may feel lonely when they are away from home.

[正确答案]:may feel lonely when they are away from home.

[翻 译]:一些心理学家认为人们出门在外时可能会感到孤独。

[考察知识点]:[词性辨析] lonely. adj.孤独的、寂寞的;alone. adj.独自的

[难 点]: “出门在外”的翻译。When they are not in their hometown
 




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