2011英语四级预测题及答案详解(5)

来源:网络 2019-03-19

Part I Writing (30 minutes)
  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: To Be a Small Fish in a Big Pond or a Big Fish in a Small Pond? You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese:
  1. 在大企业工作的特点
  2. 在小企业工作的特点
  3. 我的选择
  To Be a Small Fish in a Big Pond or a Big Fish in a Small Pond?
 
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15minutes)
  Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, mark
  Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
  N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
  NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
  For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
  
To Save Trees, Fighting One Alien Insect with Others
  Rusty rhea sighs wistfully as he talks about the beauty and peace of standing amid a grove (小树林) of deep green hemlocks in Appalachia, some of them up to 160 feet (50 meters) tall and more than 500 years old.
  "This is a very special tree," said Rhea, an entomologist for the U.S. Forest Service's Forest Health Protection program in Asheville, North Carolina, "I was brought up here, and I don't want to see another species go by the wayside."
  The evergreen trees, a hallmark of southern Appalachia's national parks, are under attack by an invasive inse4ct barely visible to the eye but potent enough to fell the giants of the eastern United States' old-growth forests.
  Already the tiny bug from Japan, known as the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), has killed upward of 95 percent of the hemlocks in Virginia's Shenandoah National Park. Now they are making their way through the half-million-plus-acre (200,000-plus-hectare) Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina and Tennessee.
  The hemlocks shade streams, keeping water temperatures just right for brook trout (鲑鱼) and other fish. They also house birds such as the black-throated green warbler, solitary vireo, and northern goshawk, all three of which mainly shelter in stands of hemlock trees.
  Because of the insect's broad impact on the entire ecosystem of southern Appalachia, HWA stands to cause wider damage than the American chestnut blight (枯萎病)of the early 1900s. That fungus from Europe killed off the once dominant chestnut trees from the northeast United States to the southern Appalachian Mountains.
  In addition, a species related to HWA, the balsam woolly adelgid, has already killed about 90 percent of the mature Fraser fir trees in the Smokies.
  Acting Quickly
  HWA arrived in the U.S. Pacific Northwest via nursery plants from Japan in 1924. By 1951 the tiny invader had been found in Virginia. Since then the insect has spread to more than 15 U.S. states.
  The key to killing the HWA is to catch it early and act quickly. It's already well established in the Great Smoky Mountains, where Rhea and others are trying to stem the spread of the bugs.
  HWA multiply quickly: All of the insects are females that reproduce asexually (无性地), laying several hundred eggs a year. When they get to the nymph, or crawler, stage, they are dormant from about June until October, after which they emerge and establish themselves on trees.
  Winds and birds and other animals spread the crawlers through the forest.
  HWA crawlers feed on the new growth of hemlocks by piercing the twigs that hold the branches, sucking the sap, and injecting toxic saliva. The needles turn from a deep green to a grayish green and eventually die, depriving the tree of nutrition from photosynthesis.
  An infected tree usually dies within five years of initial attack. Infection is signaled by either a white, cottonlike material that appears along a tree's twigs or by the "baldness" of a tree's upper branches.
  Plans of Attack
  In the Pacific Northwest the hemlocks seem to be tolerant of the creatures' feeding, and in the cold northeast, winters seem to keep them at bay. But in the warm southeast, with weather approximating that of the insects' native Asian homes, they thrive.
  Chemical sprays-such as insecticidal soaps and horticultural oils as well as trunk or soil injections-have helped to kill some of the HWA infestations.
  But spraying must be repeated every six months, and injections are expensive and last only two years at most. These methods can't be used conveniently or safely in remote areas or near the streams where hemlocks grow thickly.
  Long term, the best way to control the pests appears to be releasing other insects that feed exclusively on HWA. Scientists have studied HWA in Japan and China and identified three such species. One of them, the Sasajiscymnus tsugae (St) beetle, was released in areas of Great Smoky Mountains National Park in 2002.
  Studying what controls a species in its native habitat-including climate, predators, and host resistance-provided clues about which insects to use against HWA, said Kristine Johnson. Based in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, Johnson is a supervisory forester for Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
  "Biological control is the only long-term hope to save the trees in the backcountry (穷乡僻壤)," she said. "We have 800 square miles (2,100 square kilometers) of contiguous wilderness. We value the native forest, and it's entirely worth defending."
  Risky Business
  Releasing one species of non-native bug to kill another could be risky business, potentially creating another type of infestation. But scientists first quarantined and studied the HWA-killer insects.
  They believe the St beetles are the best answer to the HWA problem and that they won't cause side damage. This tiny black female beetle, the size of a poppy seed, is already spreading in the Great Smoky Mountains.
  But the beetle and other HWA-killer insects are seasonal, so it will take several different ones operating year-round to keep HWA in check, Rhea said. He doesn't believe HWA will be completely eradicated (根除) but will instead be kept in balance by the predator insects. "We're trying to insert a balance in a system that's out of balance," he said.
  Each St beetle can lay 200 to 300 eggs, said Ernest Bernard, professor of entomology at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville.
  Bernard's laboratory is one of several that are breeding the beetles.
  "Each beetle eats hundreds of baby adelgids a year," he said. And about 120,000 of the beetles have been released in the past couple years in the Smokies, but it is still too early to measure their impact.
  One good sign, Bernard said, is that some beetle larvae (幼虫) have been found in areas where they were not released, indicating that the HWA killers may be reproducing and spreading.
  1. The passage gives a general description of an invasive insect, HWA.
  2. Hemlock is a hallmark of southern Appalachia's national parks.
  3. The invasive insect, known as the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), is from Japan.
  4. The key to killing the HWA is to catch it early and act quickly.
  5. An infected tree usually dies immediately.
  6. The Hemlock in the U.S. will be saved from HWA soon.
  7. The long term, best way to control the pests HWA is spraying.
  8. Since 1951 the HWA has spread to more than________.
  9. Releasing one species of non-native bug to kill another could create________.
  10. It will take several different insects operating year-round to________.

Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)(略)

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Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
  Section A
  Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2.
  Many of the most damaging and life threatening types of weather-torrential rains, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes-begin quickly, strike suddenly, and disappear rapidly, destroying small regions while leaving neighboring areas untouched. Such event as a tornado struck the northeastern section of Edmonton, Alberta, in July 1987. Total damages from the tornado exceeded $250 million, the highest ever for any Canadian storm.
  Conventional computer models of the atmosphere have limited value in predicting short lived local storms like the Edmonton tornado, because the available weather data are generally not detailed enough to allow computers to study carefully the subtly atmospheric changes that come before these storms. In most nations, for example, weather-balloon observations are taken just once every twelve hours at locations typically separated by hundreds of miles. With such limited data, conventional forecasting models do a much better job predicting general weather conditions over large regions than they do forecasting specific local events.
  Until recently, the observation intensive approach needed for accurate, very short-range forecasts, or "Nowcasts", was not feasible. The cost of equipping and operating many thousands of conventional weather stations was extremely high, and the difficulties involved in rapidly collecting and processing the raw weather data from such a network were hard to overcome. Fortunately, scientific and technological advances have overcome most of these problems. Radar systems, automated weather instruments, and satellites are all capable of making detailed, nearly continuous observation over large regions at a relatively low cost. Communications satellites can transmit data around the world cheaply and instantaneously, and modern computers can quickly compile and analyze this large volume of weather information. Meteorologists (气象学者) and computer scientists now work together to design computer programs and video equipment capable of transforming raw weather data into words, symbols, and vivid graphic displays that forecasters can interpret easily and quickly. As meteorologists have begun using these new technologies in weather forecasting offices, Nowcasting is becoming a reality.
  47. It can be inferred from the passage that the value of damages from torrential rains, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes is ________________________.
  48. Why do conventional models of the atmosphere fail to predict such a short-lived tornado?
  ___________________________________________________________________________.
  49. It can be inferred from the passage that conventional forecasting models are now mostly used for ________________________.
  50. What does "Nowcasts" mean according to the passage?
  ___________________________________________________________________________.
  51. According to the passage, what makes "Nowcasting" a reality?
  ___________________________________________________________________________.
  Section B
  Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A],[B],[C] and [D]. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
  Passage One
  Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
  What makes Americans spend nearly half their food dollars on meals away from home? The answers lie in the way Americans live today. During the first few decades of the twentieth century, canned and other convenience foods freed the family cook from full-time duty at the kitchen range.
  Then, in the 1940s, work in the wartime defense plants took more women out of the home that ever before, setting the pattern of the working wife and mother. Unless family members pitch in with food preparation, women are not fully liberated from that chore.
  It's easier to pick up a bucket of fried chicken on the way home from work or take the family out for pizzas or burgers than to start opening cans or heating up frozen dinners after a long, hard day. Also nowadays, the rising divorce rate means that there are more single working parents with children to feed. And many young adults and elderly people, as well as unmarried and divorced mature people, live alone rather than as a part of a family unit and don't want to bother cooking for one. Fast food is appealing because it is fast, it doesn't require any dressing up, it offers a "fun" break in the daily routine, and the outlay of money seems small. It can be eaten in the car-sometimes picked up at a drive-in window without even getting out-or on the run. Even if it is brought home to eat, there will never be any dirty dishes to wash because of the handy disposable wrappings. Children, especially, love fast food because it's finger food, no struggling with knives and forks, no annoying instructions from adults about table manners.
  52. Americans enjoy fast food mainly because ________.
  [A] it can be eaten in the car
  [B] it is much more tasty than home-made food
  [C] one only uses his fingers while eating it
  [D] it is time-saving and convenient
  53. It can be inferred that children ________.
  [A] want to have freedom at table
  [B] wash dishes after each meal
  [C] are not good at using forks and knives while eating
  [D] take eating time as a fun break
  54. Many Americans are eating out and not cooking at home nowadays because ________.
  [A] they want to make a change after eating the same food for years at home
  [B] the food made outside home tastes better than food cooked at home
  [C] many of them live alone or don't like taking trouble to cook
  [D] American women refuse to cook at home due to women's liberation movement
  55. According to the text, a drive-in window is a ________.
  [A] car window from which you can see the driver
  [B] window in the restaurant from which you get your meal in the car
  [C] place where you check the mechanic condition of your car
  [D] entrance where you return the used plates after eating
  56. The expression "pitch in with" (Line 2, Para. 2) probably means________.
  [A] complain
  [B] enjoy
  [C] help
  [D] deny
  Passage Two
  Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
  InfraGard is a grass-roots effort to respond to the need for cooperation and collaboration in countering the threat of cyber crime and terrorism to private businesses and the government. By the end of September, there will be InfraGard chapters in all 50 states, Calloway said. With advice from the FBI, each local chapter will be run by a board of directors that includes members of private industry, the academic community and public agencies. Bands, utilities, and other businesses and government agencies will use a secure Web site to share information about attempts to hack into their computer networks. Members can join the system free. A key feature of the system is a two-pronged method of reporting attacks.
  A "sanitized" description of a hacking attempt or other incident-one that doesn't reveal the name or information about the victim-can be shared with the other members to spot trends. Then a more detailed description also can be sent to the FBI's computer crimes unit to interfere if there are grounds for an investigation. Cyber crime has jumped in recent years across the nation, particularly in hotbeds of financial commerce and technology like Charlotte. "Ten years ago, all you needed to protect yourself was a safe, a fence and security officers," said Chris Swecker, who is in charge of the FBI's Charlotte office. "Now any business with a modem is subject to attack." FBI agents investigate computer hacking that disrupted popular Web sites including Amazon. com, CNN and Yahoo!
  several North Carolina victims have been identified this year. The investigation has also identified computer systems in North Carolina used by hackers to commit such attacks. Prosecutions of hackers have been hampered by the reluctance of companies to report security intrusions for fear of bad publicity and lost business. Meanwhile, too many corporations have made it too easy for criminals by sacrificing security for speed and accessibility. Jack Wiles, who will lead the local InfraGard chapter's board, said a recent report estimated 97 percent of all cyber crime goes undetected. Wiles, a computer security expert, has a firewall on his personal computer to prevent hackers from getting into his files. "I get at least one report a day that somebody was trying to get into my computer," he said, "the Net is a wonderful place, but it's also a dangerous one."
  57. From the first paragraph, we know ________.
  [A] InfraGard is a protective measure against cyber crime
  [B] InfraGard is a measure of cooperation and collaboration
  [C] there will be 50 InfraGard chapters in all states
  [D] private business and the government are now committing cyber crime
  58. Each local chapter of InfraGard will be run by the following EXCEPT ________.
  [A] academic communities
  [B] public agencies
  [C] FBI
  [D] private industry
  59. By saying "too many corporations...speed and accessibility" (Lines 3~4, Para. 3), the author means ________.
  [A] too many corporations take no notice of the security problem of computers
  [B] criminals are sacrificing security for speed and accessibility
  [C] it's very easy to sacrifice security for speed and accessibility
  [D] many companies suffer from computer hacking because they value speed and accessibility more than security
  60. All the following are reasons for the rise in cyber crime EXCEPT ________.
  [A] victims won't report intrusions by hackers
  [B] victims have no firewalls
  [C] the use of modem is increasing
  [D] companies don't pay enough attention to security
  61. It can be concluded from the passage that ________.
  [A] not all hacking attempts are worthy of investigation
  [B] information of the victims is inaccessible
  [C] InfraGard chapters will be in effect by the end of September
  [D] Amazon.com was often disrupted by hacking

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Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
  Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked [A],[B],[C] and [D] on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
  Every year more than half a million American kids have drainage (排泄) tubes surgically implanted in their ears to combat persistent infections. The procedure, know as tympanostomy, may not be as 62 as the tonsillectomy was in the 1940s, but it now 63 as the nation's leading childhood 64 and a new study suggests it's being vastly overused. In 65 more than 6,000 scheduled ear tube operations, a team of experts 66 by Harvard pediatrician Lawrence Kleinman found that fewer than half were clearly justified. "Each year", the researchers write in the current Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), "several hundred thousand children in the United States may be 67 tympanostomy tubes that offer them no demonstrated 68 ...and may place them at increased 69 ."
  Tube placement isn't a 70 risky procedure, but it costs $1,000 to $1,500 and sometimes scars the eardrum, causing a partial loss of 71 . Studies show that the benefits are most likely to 72 the risks if a child's middle ear has produced sticky fluid 73 more than four months despite treatment 74 antibiotics. For less virulent infections, drug treatment is usually a(n) 75 , safer alternative (though drugs, too, can be overused). In the new JAMA study, Kleinman's team reviewed the medical charts of 6,429 kids, all under 16, 76 doctors had recommended the procedure. Even making "generous assumptions" about the likely 77 , the researchers found that a quarter of the proposed operations were 78 , since less invasive alternatives were available, 79 another third were as likely to harm the recipients as help them.
  Parents needn't 80 about ear tubes that are already in place. Once 81 implanted, the tiny devices provide drainage for six months to a year, then come out by reducing health costs by hundreds of millions of dollars every year.
  62. [A] rare [B] common [C] general [D] abnormal
  63. [A] considers [B] alternates [C] ranges [D] ranks
  64. [A] operation [B] disease [C] condition [D] injection
  65. [A] finding [B] reviewing [C] amending [D] performing
  66. [A] controlled [B] conducted [C] legitimated [D] led
  67. [A] receiving [B] accepting [C] undertaking [D] initiating
  68. [A] disadvantage [B] agreement [C] advantage [D] shortcoming
  69. [A] bottom [B] risk [C] edge [D] extent
  70. [A]subtly [B] hopefully [C] merely [D] terribly
  71. [A] feeling [B] hearing [C] health [D] memory
  72. [A] outfit [B] outflow [C] outweigh [D] outgrow
  73. [A] for [B] on [C] in [D] to
  74. [A] by [B] upon [C] with [D] along
  75. [A] expensive [B] faster [C] further [D] cheaper
  76. [A] which [B] whose [C] that [D] who
  77. [A] risks [B] dangers [C] chances [D] benefits
  78. [A] inappropriate [B] favorable [C] preferable [D] inadequate
  79. [A] where [B] when [C] whether [D] while
  80. [A] outrage [B] panic [C] complain [D] protest
  81. [A] lively [B] quickly [C] successfully [D] formally
  
Part VI Translation (5 minutes)
  Directions: Complete the sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
  82. When the train came, ________________________ (人们立即涌进站台).
  83. To open a file and show the information, ________________________(你需要双击文件名).
  84. After fifteen years' working for the company, ________________________(他被任命为主管).
  85. She works in administration, ________________________(她一天中的绝大多数时间都花在文书工作和维护记录上).
  86. Every executive is resp onsible for the success of the company
  ________________________(无论做什么工作).


答案与详解:

Part I Writing
  To Be a Small Fish in a Big Pond or a Big Fish in a Small Pond?
  There are distinct differences between being a small fish in a big pond and a big fish in a small pond, so it is with working as a subordinate in a large enterprise and presiding in a small firm.
  With the former, you can derive a deep sense of satisfaction from being a member of a well-known organization such as General Motors, or the Bell. You have the opportunities of learning from experienced executives and knowing about the standard working process.
  With the latter, you have greater responsibilities and your decision may bring immediate effect. Normally you are exposed to various experiences and expected to do a great many things without much help or guidance, which will indeed improve your abilities.
  Personally I prefer to work in a small firm, where I have great prospect of promotion as long as I work hard. And I'm sure I'll become an important figure within my small pond.
  
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)
  1. N 结合标题To Save Trees, Fighting One Alien Insect with Others迅速扫读全文可知,文章主要不是描写HWA这种虫害本身,而是如何防治这种虫害,故题干表述不正确。
  2. Y 根据题干中的信息词hallmarkAppalachia's national parks定位原文,第三段明确指出The evergreen trees, a hallmark of southern Appalachia's national parks...,可知题干表述正确。
  3. Y 根据题干中的信息词HWA定位原文,第四段有Already the tiny bug from Japan, known as the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA)...,可知题干表述正确。
  4. Y 题干中有acting quickly, 与一小标题同,估计答案在其下段落下。定位到第二段,发现题干是文中原句,故题干表述正确。
  5. N 根据题干中的信息词An infected tree定位原文,在Acting Quickly下的倒数第二段段末有An infected tree usually dies within five years of initial attack,可知题干表述错误。
  6. NG 文章后半部分讲到为了控制HWA,美国已在受灾部分地区投放HWA的天敌St bettles,但是在文章倒数第二段末尾指出这种方法是否有效还无法判断(too early to measure their impact),故本题表述正确与否末可知。
  7. N 在对抗HWA的方法中,文章着重介绍了引入其天敌来达到生态平衡的方法,且在Plans of Attack下的第四段段首有明确说明,故题干表述错误。
  8. 15 U.S. states。根据题干中的信息词1951定位原文,在Acting Quickly下第一段可找到答案。
  9. another type of infestation。读完原文,发现Risky Business下讲了用St bettles来控制HWA这种方法可能带来的风险,而题干正是谈的这种方法,定位Risky Business下的段落,首段即可找到答案。
  10. keep HWA in check。最后一题多出现在文章末尾,根据题干中的信息词year-round定位Risky Busines下的段落,在第三段第一句可以找到答案。

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Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)
  Section A
  47. very high
  题目问飓风等自然灾害带来的损失情况如何。根据题干中的torrential rains, severe thunderstormstornadoes 可以定位到文章第一段,最后一句指出损失的总值是exceeded $250 million, 可见损失非常大,故得答案very high.
  48. Because the available data are not detailed enough.
  题目问传统的天气预报为何不能有效预报短期内天气的变化。由题干中的关键词conventional models of atmosphere 可以定位到第二段的开头,第一句话的后半句because the available weather data are generally not detailed enough直接给出了答案。
  49. predicting general weather conditions over large regions
  题目问传统的天气预报现在的主要用途。由题干中的关键词conventional models 定位到第二段。最后一句指出conventional forecasting models do a much better job predicting general weather conditions over large regions than..., 即:传统的方式现在主要是用来预测大范围内的总体天气情况。
  50. Accurate, short-range forecasts.
  题干明确定位了本题的答案(第三段),第一句话就给出了解释:accurate, very short-range forecasts.
  51. Computer programs and video equipment.
  题目问什么使得Nowcasting 变成了现实。可以定位到文章的最后一句...using these new technologies in weather forecasting offices, Nowcasting is becoming a reality, 可见是these new technologies 使得Nowcasting成为现实,而these new technologies指代的就是上句话中的computer programs and video equipment.
  Section B
  Passage One
  52. D 细节题。由文章第三段第四句提到的fast food is appealing because it is fast, it doesn't require any dressing up...可知,D正确。
  53.C 推断题。文章第三段最后一句提到no struggling with knives and forks,由struggling一词可推断,孩子们不擅长使用刀叉吃饭,所以C正确。
  54. C 推断题。文章第三段提到,现在很多人都独自居住,他们不愿意为自己一个人烹制食物,所以C正确。由于题目问的是nowadays的情况,所以可排除强干扰项D
  55. B 推断题。文章第三段倒数第三句提到sometimes picked up at a drive-in window without even getting out, 由句中的without even getting out 可以推断,drive-in window 是免下窗口,即司机可以不用下车就能拿到食物,所以B正确。
  56. 语义题。文章第二段第二句意为“只要家庭成员不 准备食物,妇女们就无法完全从家务杂事中解放出来。”由此推断,pitch in with应意为“帮助”,故选C
  Passage Two
  58. C 细节题。由文章第一段第三句With advice from the FBI可知,FBI只是充当顾问,并无经营权,故选C
  59. D 语义题。被考查句原意为“很多公司为了保证网强的速度和可接入性而不顾及网络安全,这让网络犯罪变得非常容易。”言外之意是很多公司更重视网络速度和可接入性,从而遭到了电脑黑客的攻击,所以D正确。
  60. B 推断题。虽然文章提到了firewall(防火墙),但并没有说公司不使用防火墙是网络犯罪率升高的原因,故选B。而文章第三段第三句(A项),第二段倒数第二句(C项)和第三段第四句(D项)则分别说明了网络犯罪率上升的原因。
  61. A 推断题。文章第二段第二句指出,黑客攻击的详情会被送到FBI的电脑犯罪科,以确定是否需要对其深究,由此推断,并不是所有的黑客攻击都值得调查,所以A正确。

Part V Cloze
  62. B 词义辨析题。空格所在句子意思为:在20世纪40年代的时候,这个手术可能不像扁桃腺切除术________, 但是…。common符合句意,所以B正确。
  63. D 词义辨析题。由空格后的leading可知,鼓膜管置放术现在已经位于全国的第一位,所以rank符合句意,D正确。consider主语应该是人,这里应该用被动语态,所以排除;range表示“排列,把…排列成行”,如:She ranged the books neatly on the desk.她把书整齐地排放在桌子上。
  64. A 词义辨析题。空格所在句意为:鼓膜管置放术现在已经是位于全国第一位的孩童时期的 ________。由此可知,空格所填词的内涵包括鼓膜管置放术,operation符合句意,所以A正确。
  65. B 词义辨析题。空格所在句意为:在________6千多手术中,一组专家发现少于一半的人接受的治治疗是正当的。reviewing符合句意,所以B正确。amend意为“修正,改进”。
  66. D 词义辨析题。由空后的by Harvard pediatrician Lawrence Kleinman可知,这个专家组是由Lawrence Kleinman带头的,led符合句意,所以D正确。
  67. A 词义辨析题。空格所在句意为:每年美国有数十万的孩子可能________这种手术。再看选项可知,空格内应该是“接受”。receive只表示被动地接受;accept表示主动而且高兴地接受,所以A正确。
  68. C 词义辨析题。前面提到只有少于一半的人接受的手术治疗是正当的,所以可知空格处所在从句意思应该是说这个手术对他们没有什么好处,所以C正确。Shortcoming意为“缺点,短处”。
  69. B 词义辨析题。同上题分析,这种手术不仅对他们没什么好处,还可能增加他们的风险,所以B正确。edge意为“边缘;优势”。
  70. D 词义辨析题。空格所在句子意思为:植入导管并不是一个________风险的手术,但是需花费1千到1千5美元,而且有时候还会…。terribly符合句意,所以D正确。subtly意为“敏锐地;精细地”;merely意为“仅仅,只”。
  71. B 词义辨析题。空格所在句意为:…有时候还会弄伤耳膜,导致丧失部分________。hearing符合句意,所以B正确。
  72. C 词义辨析题。空格所在句意为:研究表明,益处极可能________风险,如果孩子的中耳能…。由此可见,句子是用益处和风险作比较,outweigh符合句意,所以C正确。outfit意为“配备,装备”;outflow意为“流出”;outgrow意为“长出”。
  73. A 惯用搭配题。空格后是more than four months,四个选项都可以接表示时间的词或短语:on接表示时间点的词;in表示在将来的时间里发生;to表示到…时间;for表示一段时间,所以A正确。
  74. C 词义辨析题。空格所在短语意思是:用抗生素的治疗。with符合句意,所以C正确。
  75. D 词义辨析题。空格后是逗号,然后是safer,由此可知,空格和safer是并列的关系,所以应该是形容词比较级,排除A;关于治疗的快慢文章前面没有提到,排除BC;文章前面提到治疗费用比较高,所以此处可能指更便宜一些,所以D正确。
  76. B 语法结构题。空格是从句的引导词,根据句意可知,是这些孩子的医生建议他们做这个手术,所以whose符合句意,B正确。
  77. D 词义辨析题。联系上下文可知,文章主要论述这种手术的好处和坏处,选项中AB同义,所以排除,D正确。
  78. A 词义辨析题。空格的在句意为:研究人员发现这些被建议的手术中的四分之一是________,由前面的even可知,空格处是指这些手术不好的方面,inappropriate符合句意,所以A正确。inadequate是指“不充分的,不充足的”。
  79. D 逻辑衔接题。空格所在句子意思是:________另外三分之一很可能像帮助接受手术治疗的人们一样去伤害他们。由此可见,这里的三分之一是和前面提到的四分之一相对应的,所以while符合句意,D正确。
  80. D 词义辨析题。空格所在句意为:家长们不用对已经植入耳内的导管感到________。结合后面可知,panic(恐慌)符合句意,所以B正确。outrage意为“凌辱;引起义愤”。
  81. C 词义辨析题。空格所在的句意为:一旦________植入以后,这种小装置就能排泄半年到一年的时间…。可见这正是成功植入后的效果,所以C正确。formally意为“正式地,形式上”。
  
Part VI Translation
  82. people poured into the platform immediately
  本题的考点是“涌进”的译法,短语pour into与此含义相符。而已有的时间状语从句为过去时,因此主句也应为过去时。
  83. you should double click on the file's name
  本题的考点是“双击”的译法。在电脑用语中,双击译为double click,后用介词on接被点击之物。
  84. he was appointed (as)director
  本题的考点是“任命”的译法,及物动词appoint与此含义相符。需要注意的是,职位名前不加冠词。
  85. and she spends most of her day doing paperwork and maintaining records
  此处应用动词spend表示对时间的花费,而spend在表“花费”时常采用spend...(in) doing sth.的结构。还需要注意的是,已有的句子和中文部分译成的句子应为并列关系,而两句之间是由逗号相连的,因此要在第二句前加并列连词and
  86. no matter what job he is doing
  本题的考点是“无论是什么”的译法,可用no matter what。为了表示强强调,此处还应采用现在进行时,表示正从事的工作。




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