2006年12月大学英语四级真题及答案

来源:http://www.putclub.com 2019-03-25

Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D], and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  Example: You will hear:

  You will read:

  [A] At the office.

  [B] In the waiting room.

  [C] At the airport.

  [D] In a restaurant.

  From the conversation we know that the two were talking about some work they had to finish in the evening. This conversation is most likely to have taken place at the office. Therefore, [A] “At the officeis the best answer. You should choose [A] on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the centre.

  Sample Answer [A] [B] [C] [D]

  1. W: Carol told us on the phone not to worry about her. Her left leg doesnt hurt as much as it did yesterday.

  M: Shed better have it examined by a doctor anyway. And Ill call her about it this evening.

  Question: What does the man think Carol should do?

  {A) See a doctor.}

  B) Stay in bed for a few days.

  C) Get treatment in a better hospital.

  D) Make a phone call to the doctor.

  2. M: There is a non-stop train for Washington and it leaves at 2:30.

  W: Its faster than the 2 oclock train. Besides, we can have something to eat before getting on the train.

  Question: What do we learn from the conversation?

  A) The 2:00 train will arrive earlier.

  B) The 2:30 train has a dining car.

  {C) The woman prefers to take the 2:30 train.}

  D) They are going to have some fast food on the train.

  3. M: Hi, Melissa, how is your project going? Have you thought about going to graduate school? Perhaps you could get into Harvard .

  W: Everything is coming along really well. Ive been thinking about graduate school. But Ill talk to my tutor Doc. Garcia first and see what she thinks.

  Question: What do we learn about the woman from the conversation?

  A) She has been longing to attend Harvard University.

  B) Shell consider the mans suggestion carefully.

  C) She has finished her project with Dr. Garcias help.

  {D) Shell consult Dr. Garcia about entering graduate school.}

  4. W: Did you attend Alices presentation last night? It was the first time for her to give a speech to a large audience.

  M: How she could be so calm in front of so many people is really beyond me!

  Question: What do we learn from the conversation?

  {A) Alice didnt seem to be nervous during her speech.}

  B) Alice needs more training in making public speeches.

  C) The man can hardly understand Alices presentation.

  D) The man didnt think highly of Alices presentation.

  5. W: Youve been doing weather reports for nearly 30 years. Has the weather got any worse in all these years?

  M: Well, not necessarily worse. But were seeing more swings.

  Question: What does the man say about the weather?

  A) Its worse than 30 years ago.

  B) It remains almost the same as before.

  {C) There are more extremes in the weather.}

  D) There has been a significant rise in temperature.

  6. M: Excuse me, I am looking for the textbook by Prof. Jordan for the marketing course.

  W: I am afraid its out of stock. Youll have to order it. And it will take the publisher 3 weeks to send it to us.

  Question: Where did the conversation most probably take place?

  A) At a publishing house.

  {B) At a bookstore.}

  C) In a reading room.

  D) In Prof. Jordans office.

  7. M: I am going to New York next week, but the hotel I booked is really expensive.

  W: Why book a hotel? My brother has 2 spare rooms in his apartment.

  Question: What does the woman mean?

  {A) The man can stay in her brothers apartment.}

  B) Her brother can help the man find a cheaper hotel.

  C) Her brother can find an apartment for the man.

  D) The man should have booked a less expensive hotel.

  8. M: In my opinion, watching the news on TV is a good way to learn English. What do you think?

  W: It would be better if you could check the same information in English newspapers afterwards.

  Question: What does the man say about learning English?

  A) Priority should be given to listening.

  B) Its most helpful to read English newspapers every day.

  {C) Its more effective to combine listening with reading.}

  D) Reading should come before listening.

  9. M: I hear a newly-invented drug can make people tell the truth, and it may prove useful in questioning terrorists. Isnt it incredible?

  W: Simple solutions to complex problems rarely succeed. As far as I know, no such drugs are ever known to work.

  Question: What does the woman think of the new drug?

  A) It can help solve complex problems.

  {B) It will most likely prove ineffective}

  C) It is a new weapon against terrorists.

  D) It will help detect all kinds of liars.

  10.M: You know, the electronics company is coming to our campus to recruit graduate students next week.

  W: Really? What day? Id like to talk to them and hand in my resume.

  Question: What does the woman want to do?

  A) Help the company recruit graduate students.

  B) Visit the electronics company next week.

  C) Get a part-time job on campus before graduation.

  {D) Apply for a job in the electronics company.}

 
       Section B

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D].??Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  A new study reports the common drug aspirin greatly reduces life threatening problems after an operation to replace blocked blood vessels to the heart. More than 800,000 people around the world have this heart surgery each year. The doctors who carried out this study say giving aspirin to patients soon after the operation could save thousands of lives. People usually take aspirin to control pain and reduce high body temperature. Doctors also advise some people to take aspirin to help prevent heart attacks. About 10-15 percent of these heart operations end in death or damage to the heart or other organs. The new study shows that even a small amount of aspirin reduced such threats. The doctors said the chance of death for patients who took aspirin would fall by 67%. They claimed this was true if the aspirin was given within 48 hours of the operation. The doctors believe aspirin helps heart surgery patients because it can prevent blood from thickening and blood vessels from being blocked. However, the doctors warned that people who have stomach bleeding or other bad reactions from aspirin should not take it after heart surgery.

  原文出处:

  Aspirin After Bypass Surgery

  A new study says the common drug aspirin greatly reduces life-threatening problems after an operation to replace blocked blood vessels to the heart. The operation involves attaching new blood vessels onto the heart to bypass blockages in the arteries that feed blood to the heart.

  More than eight-hundred-thousand people around the world have this heart bypass surgery each year. The doctors who carried out the study say giving aspirin to patients soon after the operation could save thousands of lives.

  People usually take aspirin to control pain and reduce high body temperature. Doctors also advise some people to take aspirin to help prevent heart attacks.

  About ten to fifteen percent of bypass operations end in death or damage to the heart, kidneys or intestines. The new study said even a small amount of aspirin reduced such threats. The doctors said the chance of death for bypass patients in the hospital who took aspirin fell by sixty-seven percent. They said this was true if the aspirin was given within forty-eight hours of the operation.

  The research was published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Dennis Mangano (mahn-GAH-no) heads the Ischemia Research and Education Foundation, a nonprofit organization in San Francisco, California. Doctor Mangano led a team that examined the records of more than five-thousand patients in seventeen countries who had a heart bypass operation. Some patients received aspirin daily after the operation. Other patients did not receive aspirin.

  The doctors believe aspirin aids bypass surgery patients in two ways. They say it prevents blood from thickening and forming clots that block blood vessels. They also believe aspirin reduces inflammation in blood vessels which increases after an operation and can damage organs.

  Several medical organizations already advise that patients receive aspirin soon after bypass surgery because it helps the new blood vessels. However, many doctors have advised against aspirin both before and after operations. They fear it may cause severe bleeding. Doctor Mangano's team did not report that bleeding was a problem.

  However, the doctors said people who have stomach or intestinal bleeding or other bad reactions from aspirin should NOT receive it after bypass surgery.

  Questions 11 to 13 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  11. What is the finding of the new study of aspirin?

  A) It has been proven to be the best pain-killer.

  B) It is a possible cure for heart disease.

  C) It can help lower high body temperature effectively.

  {D) It reduces the chance of death for heart surgery patients.}

  12. In what way can aspirin help heart surgery patients according to the doctors?

  {A} It keeps blood vessels from being blocked.]

  B) It speeds up their recovery after surgery.

  C) It increases the blood flow to the heart.

  D) It adjusts their blood pressure.

  13. What warning did the doctors give about the use of aspirin?

  {A) It is harmful to heart surgery patients with stomach bleeding.}

  B) It should not be taken by heart surgery patients before the operation.

  C) It will have considerable side effects if taken in large doses.

  D) It should not be given to patients immediately after the operation.

  Passage Two

  Were you the first or last child in your family? Or were you a middle or an only child? Some people think it matters where you were born in your family. But there are different ideas about what birth order means. Some people say that oldest children are smart and strong-willed. They are very likely to be successful. The reason for this is simple: parents have a lot of time for their first child, they give him or her a lot of attention. So this child is very likely to do well. An only child will succeed for the same reason. What happens to the other children in a family? Middle children dont get so much attention, so they dont feel that important. If a family has many children, the middle ones sometimes get lost in the crowd. The youngest child, though, often gets special treatment. He or shi is the baby. Often this child grows up to be funny and charming. Do you believe these ideas about birth order too? A recent study saw things quite differently. The study found that first children believe in family rules. They didnt take many chances in their lives. They usually followed orders. Rules didnt mean as much to later children in a family. They went out and followed their own ideas. They took chances and they often did better in life.

  Questions 14 to 16 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  Q14. According to common belief, in what way are the first child and the only child alike?

  A) They strongly believe in family rules.

  {B) They are very likely to succeed in life.}

  C) They tend to take responsibility for themselves

  D) They are in the habit of obeying their parents.

  Q15. What do people usually say about middle children?

  A) They grow up to be funny and charming.

  B) They often have a poor sense of direction.

  {C) They get less attention from their parents.}

  D) They tend to be smart and strong-willed.

  Q16. What do we learn about later children in a family from a recent study of birth order?

  {A) They usually dont follow family rules.}

  B) They dont like to take chances in their lives.

  C) They are less likely to be successful in life.

  D) They tend to believe in their parents ideas.

  Passage Three

  When my interest shifted from space to the sea, I never expected it would cause such confusion among my friends, yet I can understand their feelings. As I have been writing and talking about space flight for the best part of 20 years, a sudden switch of interest to the depth of the sea does seem peculiar. To explain, Id like to share my reasons behind this unusual change of mind. The first excuse I give is an economic one. Underwater exploration is so much cheaper than space flight. The first round-trip ticket to the moon is going to cost at least 10 billion dollars if you include research and development. By the end of this century, the cost will be down to a few million. On the other hand, the diving suit and a set of basic tools needed for skin diving can be bought for 20 dollars. My second argument is more philosophical. The ocean, surprisingly enough, has many things in common with space. In their different ways, both sea and space are equally hostile. If we wish to survive in either for any length of time, we need to have mechanical aids. The diving suit helped the design of the space suit. The feelings and emotions of a man beneath the sea will be much like those of a man beyond the atmosphere.

  Questions 17 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  Q17. How did the speakers friends respond to his change of interest?

  A) They wanted to follow his example.

  B) They fully supported his undertaking.

  {C) They were puzzled by his decision.}

  D) They were afraid he wasnt fully prepared.

  Q18. What is one of the reasons for the speaker to switch his interest to underwater exploration?

  A) It is more exciting than space travel.

  {B) It is much cheaper than space travel.}

  C) It is much safer than space travel.

  D) It is less time-consuming than space travel.

  Q19. In what way does the speaker think diving is similar to space travel?

  A) They both attract scientistsattention

  {B) They can both be quite challenging}

  C) They are both thought-provoking.

  D) They may both lead to surprising findings.

  Q20. What is the speakers purpose in giving this talk?  

  A) To show how simple the mechanical aids for diving can be.

  B) To provide an excuse for his changeable character.

  C) To explore the philosophical issues of space travel.

  {D) To explain why he took up underwater exploration.}

  Part II Reading comprehension (35 minutes)

  Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

  Just five one-hundredths of an inch thick, light golden in color and with a perfectsaddle curl,” the Lays potato chip seems an unlikely weapon for global domination. But its maker, Frito-Lay, thinks otherwise. “Potato chips are a snack food for the world,” said Salman Amin, the companys head of global marketing. Amin believes there is no corner of the world that can resist the charms of a Frito-Lay potato chip.

  Frito-Lay is the biggest snack maker in America, owned by PepsiCo, and accounts for over half of the parent companys $3 billion annual profits. But the U.S. snack food market is largely saturated, and to grow, the company has to look overseas.

  Its strategy rests on two beliefs: first, a global product offers economies of scale with which local brands cannot compete, and second, consumers in the 21st century are drawn toglobalas a concept. “Globaldoes not mean products that are consciously identified as American, but ones that consumers ? especially young people ? see as part of a modem, innovative(创新的) world in which people are linked across cultures by shared beliefs and tastes. Potato chips are an American invention, but most Chinese, for instance, do not know that Frito-Lay is an American company. Instead, Riskey, the companys research and development head, would hope they associate the brand with the new world of global communications and business.

  With brand perception a crucial factor, Riskey ordered a redesign of the Frito-Lay logo(标识). The logo, along with the companys long-held marketing image of theirresistibilityof its chips, would help facilitate the companys global expansion.

  The executives acknowledge that they try to swing national eating habits to a food created in America, but they deny that amounts to economic imperialism. Rather, they see Frito-Lay as spreading the benefits of free enterprise across the world. “Were making products in those countries, were adapting them to the tastes of those countries, building businesses and employing people and changing lives,” said Steve Reinemund, PepsiCos chief executive.

  原文出处:

  FritoLay: Using Potato Chips to Spread the Spirit of Free Enterprise

  Just five one-hundredths of an inch thick, light golden in color and with a perfect "saddle curl," the Lay's potato chip seems an unlikely weapon for global domination.

  But its maker, Texas-based Frito-Lay, thinks otherwise. "Potato chips are a snack for the world," said Salman Amin, the company's head of global marketing. Amin believes there is no corner of the world, no race or tribe, that can resist the charms of a Frito-Lay potato chip.

  The Chinese might have their nyen gao ping, made from rice flour, and the Indians their lentil-and-chickpea namkeens, but Frito-Lay believes they would rather be eating potato chips. The company's research has shown that when given a choice between their local snack and a Frito-Lay chip, consumers in most countries will choose the chip.

  Putting its findings into practice, Frito-Lay has expanded on all five continents by buying up local snack makers or defeating them with its marketing expertise and sheer size.

  "Never have we introduced Lay's potato chips and had it not be successful," said Dwight Riskey, the research and development head who devised Frito-Lay's global strategy five years ago. "It's been successful every single place we've introduced it."

  Thinking Globally, Acting Globally

  Frito-Lay, which also produces Doritos and Chee-tos, is the biggest snack maker in the United States, with 55 percent of the potato chip market. It is owned by PepsiCo, and accounts for more than half of the parent company's $3 billion profits every year. But the U.S. snack market is largely saturated, and in order to grow ? the key to remaining successful ? the company had to look overseas.

  Riskey's strategy rests on two beliefs: first, that a global product offers economies of scale with which local brands cannot compete, and second that consumers in the 21st century are drawn to "global" as a concept. By "global," Riskey does not mean products that are consciously identified as American, like Coca-Cola and Nike, but ones that consumers ? especially young people ? see as part of a modern, innovative world in which people are linked across cultures by shared beliefs and tastes. Potato chips are an American invention ? created by a chef in Saratoga Springs, N.Y. in 1853 ? but most Chinese, for instance, do not know that Frito-Lay is an American company. Instead, Riskey would hope they associate the brand with the brave new world of global communications and business.

  With brand perception a crucial factor, Riskey ordered a redesign of the Frito-Lay logo, eventually settling on a red logo with a banner suggesting "celebration" and a sun denoting "universality." The logo, along with the company's long-held marketing image of the "irresistibility" of its chips, would underpin the company's global expansion.

  Taking Aim at the Local Snack

  Frito-Lay honed a strategy for moving into new countries where a local snack industry is already established. Rather than face the costs of building a new business in an unfamiliar market, the company identifies the leading local snack manufacturer and offers to buy it out. If the local manufacturer refuses to sell, Frito-Lay moves into the market on its own, using its size and marketing experience to cut into the local manufacturer's sales. Often, at that point, the local company gives in and sells, sometimes for a lower price than the original offer.

  If the preferred local snack is already a potato chip, Frito-Lay rebrands it. After buying Walkers, the dominant chip in Britain, the Texas company refashioned the Walkers logo into the red "banner sun" design, as a first step toward changing the brand to Frito-Lay outright. Similar plans are under way for Sabritas in Mexico and Simba in South Africa. "We just say, 'You know that stuff you love? Well, now it's going to be called Lay's,'" said Riskey.

  If the locals are used to eating something other than potato chips, Frito-Lay devises "differentiated products" that bridge the way to the chip. For the Indian market, the company created Kurkure Twisteez, a potato snack that comes in local flavors like Masala Munch.

  Sometimes Frito-Lay's products are so unfamiliar that the advertising campaigns focus on educating consumers in the hope of changing their "consumption habits." In China, Frito-Lay ads show potatoes actually being sliced, so people know where the chips come from. In Turkey, the company distributed pamphlets suggesting new recipes and eating habits: "Try a tuna sandwich for lunch, and join it with a bag of chips."

  Looking for 'New Occasions'

  Like other multinational companies, Frito-Lay has learned that the best managers are often locals who know the market and culture well. Although they must follow certain global standards ? such as the company's long-held marketing theme of "irresistibility" ? regional managers are encouraged to look for for new "occasions" to increase sales in their specific areas.

  In Holland, where the Dutch tend to eat potato chips only at night, as an after-dinner snack, manager Eugene Willemsen focused his efforts on changing their habits by distributing free samples on the streets during the day. He also targeted high schools, knowing that children were driving Frito-Lay's growth in Holland. "For us, the biggest opportunity for growth is to penetrate new occasions with salty snacks," Willemsen said.

  In South Africa, national sales manager Arnold Selokane boosted sales in native townships by hiring local drivers to make deliveries, making the product seem less foreign. In China, sales director Jackson Chiu raised sales by 57 percent in one year, in part by focusing on girls and young women. "We market to girls and the boys follow," he said.

  The company encourages such initiative by flying promising managers to the Frito-Lay headquarters in Plano, Texas, or the PepsiCo campus in Purchase, N.Y., for intensive courses on marketing and business development. Selokane and Chiu were among 200 PepsiCo employees honored at the company's annual "Ring of Honor" ceremony in 2001. With honorees from 50 countries, speaking 30 different languages, the four-day program resembled the United Nations' General Assembly, complete with headsets and banks of translators.

  Not Just Potato Chips

  The executives behind Frito-Lay's global expansion acknowledge that they try to swing national eating habits to a food that was created in America, but they deny that amounts to economic imperialism. Rather, they see Frito-Lay as spreading the benefits of free enterprise across the world. "We're making products in those countries, we're adapting it to the tastes of those countries, building businesses and employing people and changing lives," said Steve Reinemund, PepsiCo's chief executive.

  Frank Wong, who runs Frito-Lay's operations in China, believes that by training Chinese managers the company is helping build up an educated middle class that will play a major role in the country's economic transformation. "We bring a lot to China, a lot more than just the brand called Lay's," he said.

  21. It is the belief of Frito-Lays head of global marketing that _____.

  A) potato chips can hardly be used as a weapon to dominate the world market

  B) their company must find new ways to promote domestic sales

  C) the light golden color enhances the charm of their companys potato chips

  {D) people all over the world enjoy eating their companys potato chips}

  22. What do we learn about Frito-Lay from Paragraph 2?

  A) Its products used to be popular among overseas consumers.

  B) Its expansion has caused fierce competition in the snack marker.

  C) It gives half of its annual profits to its parent company.

  {D) It needs to turn to the world market for development.}

  23. One of the assumptions on which Frito-Lay bases its development strategy is that _____.

  {A) consumers worldwide today are attracted by global brands}

  B) local brands cannot compete successfully with American brands

  C) products suiting Chinese consumersneeds bring more profits

  D) products identified as American will have promising market value

  24. Why did Riskey have the Frito-Lay logo redesigned?

  A) To suit changing tastes of young consumers.

  {B) To promote the companys strategy of globalization. }

  C) To change the companys long-held marketing image.

  D) To compete with other American chip producers.

  25. Frito-Lays executives claim that the promoting of American food in the international market _____.

  A) wont affect the eating habits of the local people

  B) will lead to economic imperialism

  {C) will be in the interest of the local people}

  D) wont spoil the taste of their chips 
 

 

  Passage Two

  Question 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

  In communities north of Denver, residents are pitching in to help teachers and administrators as the Vrain School District tries to solve a $13.8 million budget shortage blamed on mismanagement. “Were worried about our teachers and principals, and we really dont want to lose them because of this,” one parent said. “If we can help ease their financial burden, we will. ”

  Teachers are grateful, but know it may be years before the district is solvent(有偿还能力的). They feel really good about the parent support, but they realize its impossible for them to solve this problem.

  The 22,000-student district discovered the shortage last month. “Its extraordinary. Nobody would have imagined something happening like this at this level,” said State Treasurer Mike Coffman.

  Coffman and district officials last week agreed on a state emergency plan freeing up a $9.8 million loan that enabled the payroll(工资单) to be met for 2,700 teachers and staff in time for the holidays.

  District officials also took $1.7 million from student-activity accounts in its 38 schools.

  At Coffmans request, the District Attorney has begun investigating the districts finances. Coffman says he wants to know whether district officials hid the budget shortage until after the November election, when voters approved a $212 million bond issue for schools.

  In Frederick, studentsparents are buying classroom supplies and offering to pay for groceries and utilities to keep first-year teachers and principals in their jobs.

  Some $36,000 have been raised in donations from Safeway. A Chevrolet dealership donated $10,000 and forgave the districts $10,750 bill for renting the driver education cars. IBM contributed 4,500 packs of paper.

  “We employ thousands of people in this community,” said Mitch Carson, a hospital chief executive, who helped raise funds. “We have children in the schools, and we see how they could be affected.”

  At Creek High School, three students started a website that displays newspaper articles, district information and an email forum(论坛). “Rumors about whats happening to the district are moving at lighting speed,” said a student. “We wanted to know the truth, and spread that around instead.”

  原文出处

  Community bailing out broke school district

  Parents are offering to help pay grocery and utility bills. Businesses are donating cash and a group of students run an informational Web site.

  In communities just north of Denver, residents are pitching in to help teachers and administrators as the St. Vrain Valley School District grapples with a $13.8 million budget shortfall blamed on mismanagement.

  "We're worried about our teachers and our principals, and we really don't want to lose them because of this," parent Merrill Bohanning, 44, said. "If we can help ease their financial burden, we will."

  Teachers are grateful, but know it may be years before the district is solvent.

  "Teachers feel really good about the parent support," said Jeannie Beyer, spokeswoman for the St. Vrain Valley Education Association. "But they realize it's not going to be possible for them to solve this problem."

  The 22,000-student district in parts of Weld, Boulder and Larimer counties discovered the shortfall last month. The finance director resigned and an assistant superintendent has been suspended. District officials said an independent audit showed the two mismanaged the budget but did not commit fraud.

  "It's extraordinary. Nobody would have ever imagined something happening like this at this level," said State Treasurer Mike Coffman. "I think the state needs to learn from this."

  It takes a village

  Coffman and district officials last week agreed on a state bailout plan freeing up a $9.8 million loan that enabled the payroll to be met for 2,700 teachers and staff in time for the holidays.

  The plan calls for all district employees to take a 7.1 percent pay cut beginning January 1 and a hiring freeze through June 2004. Administrators who used to pay $1 a month for family health insurance now will pay $1 for themselves and the regular premium for the rest of their families.

  District officials also took $1.7 million from student-activity accounts in its 38 schools.

  At Coffman's request, the Boulder District Attorney has begun investigating the district's finances. Coffman has said he wants to know whether district officials hid the budget shortfall until after the November election, when voters approved a $212 million bond issue for schools.

  In Frederick about 30 miles northeast of Denver, Bohanning and other parents of students at Prairie Ridge Elementary School are buying classroom supplies and offering to pay for groceries and utility bills to keep first-year teachers and principals in their jobs.

  Some $36,000 have been raised in donations from Safeway. A Chevrolet dealership chipped in $10,000 and forgave the district's $10,750 bill for renting the driver education cars. IBM chipped in 4,500 reams of paper.

  "We employ thousands of people in this community," said Mitch Carson, a hospital chief executive officer, who helped raise funds. "We have children in the schools, and we see how they could be affected."

  At Silver Creek Middle-Senior High School, three juniors started a Web site called www.poorschool.com that displays newspaper articles, district information and an e-mail forum.

  "Rumors about what is happening to the district are moving at lightning speed," site co-creator Mitch Lubbers, 17, said. "We wanted to know the truth, and spread that around instead."

  26. What has happened to the Vrain School District?

  {A) A huge financial problem has arisen.}

  B) Many schools there are mismanaged.

  C) Lots of teachers in the district are planning to quit.

  D) Many administrative personnel have been laid off.

  27. How did the residents in the Vrain School District respond to the budget shortage?

  A) They felt somewhat helpless about it.

  B) They accused those responsible for it.

  {C) They pooled their efforts to help solve it.}

  D) They demanded a thorough investigation.

  28. In the view of State Treasurer Mike Coffman, the educational budget shortage is _________.

  A) unavoidable

  {B) unthinkable }

  C) insolvable

  D) irreversible

  29. Why did Coffman request an investigation?

  {A) To see if there was a deliberate cover-up of the problem.}

  B) To find out the extent of the consequences of the case.

  C) To make sure that the school principals were innocent.

  D) To stop the voters approving the $212 million bond issue.

  30. Three high school students started a website in order to __________.

  A) attract greater public attention to their needs

  B) appeal to the public for contributions and donations

  C) expose officials who neglected their duties

  {D) keep people properly informed of the crisis}

  Passage Three

  Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.

  “Humans should not try to avoid stress any more than they would shun food, love or exercise.” said Dr. Hans Selye, the first physician to document the effects of stress on the body. While heres no question that continuous stress is harmful, several studies suggest that challenging situations in which youre able to rise to the occasion can be good for you.

  In a 2001 study of 158 hospital nurses, those who faced considerable work demands but coped with the challenge were more likely to say they were in good health than those who felt they couldnt get the job done.

  Stress that you can manage may also boost immune(免疫的) function. In a study at the Academic Center for Dentistry in Amsterdam, researchers put volunteers through two stressful experiences. In the first, a timed task that required memorizing a list followed by a short test, subjects believed they had control over the outcome. In the second, they werent in control: They had to sit through a gory(血淋淋的) video on surgical procedures. Those who did go on the memory test had an increase in levels of immunoglobulin A, an antibody that's the bodys first line of defense against germs. The video-watchers experienced a downturn in the antibody.

  Stress prompts the body to produce certain stress hormones. In short bursts these hormones have a positive effect, including improved memory function. “They can help nerve cells handle information and put it into storage,” says Dr. Bruce McEwen of Rockefeller University in New York. But in the long run these hormones can have a harmful effect on the body and brain.

  “Sustained stress is not good for you,” says Richard Morimoto, a researcher at Northwestern University in Illinois studying the effects of stress on longevity(长寿), “Its the occasional burst of stress or brief exposure to stress that could be protective.”

  原文出处

  Healing Power of Stress

  Some of those crazy, time-crunched days at the office may actually be good for you

  “Man SHOULD NOT try to avoid stress than he would shun food, love or exercise," said Dr. HansSelye, the first physician to document the effects of stress on the body. While there's no question that prolonged stress is harmful, several studies suggest that challenging situations in which youre able to rise to the occasion can be good for you.

  In a 2001 study of 158 hospital nurses, those who faced considerable work demands but coped with the challenge were more likely to say they were in good health than those who felt they couldnt get the job done.

  Stress that you can manage may also boost immune function. In a study at the Academic Centre for Dentistry in Amsterdam, researchers put volunteers through two stressful experiences. In the first, a timed task that required memorizing a list followed by a short test, subjects believed they had control over the outcome. In the second, they weren't in control: They had to sit through a gory video on surgical procedures. Those who did go on the memory test had an increase in levels of immunoglobulin A, an antibody that's the bodys first line of defense against germs. The video-watchers experienced a downturn in the antibody.

  Stress prompts the body to produce adrenaline and the stress hormonecortisol. In short bursts these hormones have a positive effect, including improved memory function. "Cortisol and adrenaline enhances how nerve cells handle information and put it into storage," says Bruce McEwen, head of the laboratory of neuron endocrinology at Rockefeller University. But over the long term these hormones can have a corrosive effect on the body and brain.

  "Sustained stress is not good for you," says Richard Morimoto, a researcher at Northwestern University studying the effects of stress on longevity. "It's the occasional burst of stress or brief exposure to environmental or physiological stress that could be protective."

  31. The passage is mainly about ______

  {A) the benefits of manageable stress}

  B) how to avoid stressful situations

  C) how to cope with stress effectively

  D) the effects of stress hormones on memory

  32. The wordshun” (Line 1, Para.1) most probably means________.

  A) cut down on

  {B) stay away from}

  C) run out of

  D) put up with

  33. We can conclude from the study of the 158 nurses in 2001 that _______

  A) people under stress tend to have a poor memory

  B) people who cant get their job done experience more stress

  {C) doing challenging work may be good for ones health}

  D) stress will weaken the bodys defense against germs

  34. In the experiment described in Paragraph 3, the video-watchers experienced a downturn in the antibody because ______.

  A) the video was not enjoyable at all

  {B) the outcome was beyond their control }

  C) they knew little about surgical procedures

  D) they felt no pressure while watching the video

  35. Dr. Bruce McEwen of Rockefeller University believes that ______.

  A) a persons memory is determined by the level of hormones in his body

  B) stress hormones have lasting positive effects on the brain

  {C) short bursts of stress hormones enhance memory function}

  D) a persons memory improves with continued experience of stress.

  Passage Four

  Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.

  If you want to teach your children how to say sorry, you must be good at saying it yourself, especially to your own children. But how you say it can be quite tricky.

  If you say to your childrenIm sorry I got angry with you, but …” what follows thatbutcan render the apology ineffective: “I had a bad dayoryour noise was giving me a headacheleaves the person who has been injured feeling that he should be apologizing for his bad behavior in expecting an apology.

  Another method by which people appear to apologize without actually doing so is to sayIm sorry youre upset”; this suggests that you are somehow at fault for allowing yourself to get upset by what the other person has done.

  Then there is the general, all covering apology, which avoids the necessity of identifying a specific act that was particularly hurtful or insulting, and which the person who is apologizing should promise never to do again. SayingIm useless as a parentdoes not commit a person to any specific improvement.

  These pseudo-apologies are used by people who believe saying sorry shows weakness. Parents who wish to teach their children to apologize should see it as a sign of strength, and therefore not resort to these pseudo-apologies.

  But even when presented with examples of genuine contrition(痛悔), children still need help to become aware of the complexities of saying sorry. A three-year-old might need help in understanding that other children feel pain just as he does, and that hitting a playmate over the head with a heavy toy requires an apology. A six-year-old might need reminding that spoiling other childrens expectations can require an apology. A 12-year-old might need to be shown that raiding the biscuit tin without asking permission is acceptable, but that borrowing a parents clothes without permission is not.

  36. If a mother addsbutto an apology, ________.

  A) she doesnt feel that she should have apologized.

  B) she does not realize that the child has been hurt

  C) the child may find the apology easier to accept

  {D) the child may feel that he owes her an apology}

  37. According to the author, sayingIm sorry youre upsetmost probably means “_______”.

  A) You have good reason to get upset

  {B) Im aware youre upset, but Im not to blame}

  C) I apologize for hurting your feelings

  D) Im at fault for making you upset

  38. It is not advisable to use the general, all-covering apology because ______.

  A) it gets one into the habit of making empty promises

  B) it may make the other person feel guilty

  {C) it is vague and ineffective}

  D) it is hurtful and insulting

  39. We learn from the last paragraph that in teaching children to say sorry ______.

  A) the complexities involved should be ignored

  {B) their ages should be taken into account}

  C) parents need to set them a good example

  D) parents should be patient and tolerant

  40. It can be inferred from the passage that apologizing properly is _________.

  A) a social issue calling for immediate attention

  B) not necessary among family members

  C) a sign of social progress

  {D) not as simple as it seems }

  Part III Vocabulary (20 minutes)

  Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  41. Some people believe that since oil is scarce, the ____ of the motor industry is uncertain.

  A) terminal B) benefit {C) fate }D) estimate

  42. To speed up the ______ of letters, the Post Office introduced automatic sorting.

  A) treatment{ B) delivery} C) transmission D) departure

  43. These overseas students show great ______ for learning a new language.

  {A) enthusiasm }B) authority C) convention D) faith

  44. The defense lawyer was questioning the old man who was one of the ______ of the murder committed last month.

  A) observers {B) witnesses} C) audiences D) viewers

  45. Politically these nations tend to be ______, with very high birth rates but poor education and very low levels of literacy.

  {A) unstable} B) reluctant C) rational D) unsteady

  46. The chairman was blamed for letting his secretary ________too much work last week.

  A) take to B) take out C) take away {D) take on}

  47. “You try to get some sleep. Ill _____the patients breakfast,” said the nurse.

  {A) see to }B) stick to C) get to D) lead to

  48. The London Marathon is a difficult race. _______, thousands of runners participate every year.

  A) Therefore B) Furthermore C) Accordingly {D) Nevertheless}

  49. The bank refused to ______ him any money, so he had to postpone buying a house.

  A) credit B) borrow {C) loan }D) lease

  50. The more a nations companies _______ factories abroad, the smaller that countrys recorded exports will be.

  A) lie B) spot C) stand {D) locate}

  51. Being ignorant of the law is not accepted as an ______ for breaking the law.

  {A) excuse} B) intention C) option D) approval

  52. Within two days, the army fired more than two hundred rockets and missiles at military _____ in the coastal city.

  A) goals B) aims{ C) targets} D) destinations

  53. It is said in some parts of the world, goats, rather than cows, serve as a vital _____of milk.

  A) storage B) reserve C) resource{ D) source}

  54. “This light is too______ for me to read by. Dont we have a brighter bulb some where”, said the elderly man.

  A) mild {B} dim} C) minute D) slight

  55. We have arranged to go to the cinema on Friday, but we can be _______ and go another day.

  A) reliable B) probable C) feasible{ D) flexible}

  56. We are quite sure that we can ______our present difficulties and finish the task according to schedule.

  A) get across {B) get over} C) get away D) get off

  57. ______ recent developments we do not think your scheme is practical.

  {A) In view of} B) In case of C) In memory of D) In favor of

  58. Jessica was ______ from the warehouse to the accounting office, which was considered a promotion.

  A) delivered B) exchanged {C) transferred} D) transformed

  59. Mr. Smith asked his secretary to ______ a new paragraph in the annual report she was typing.

  A) inject B) install C) invade {D) insert}

  60. Theres the living room still to be _____, so that's my next project.

  A) abandoned {B) decorated }C) dissolved D) assessed

  61. The old paper mill has been ______ to make way for a new shopping centre.

  A) cut down B) kept down {C) torn down }D) held down

  62. It may be necessary to stop ______ in the learning process and go back to the difficult points in the lessons.

  A) at a distance B) at intervals C) at case D) at length

  63. You can hire a bicycle in many places. Usually youll have to pay a _________.

  A) fare B) fund {C) deposit }D) deal

  64. My grandfather had always taken a _______ interest in my work, and I had an equal admiration for the stories of his time.

  A) splendid B) weighty C) vague {D) keen}

  65. ________ quantities of water are being used nowadays with the rapid development of industry and agriculture.

  {A) Excessive} B) Extensive C) Extreme D) Exclusive  

  66. John cannot afford to go to university, _______ going abroad.

  A) nothing but B) anything but {C) not to speak of} D) nothing to speak of

  67. Most laboratory and field studies of human behavior ______ taking a situational photograph at a given time and in a given place.

  {A) involve} B) compose C) enclose D) attach

  68. If you dont like to swim, you _____ as well stay at home.

  A) should{ B) may} C) can D) would

  69. Dr. Smith was always ______ the poor and the sick, often providing them with free medical care.

  A) reminded of B) absorbed in C) tended by {D) concerned about}

  70. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams died on July 4, 1826, the fiftieth ______ of American Independence.

  A) ceremony B) occasion C) occurrence {D) anniversary}

  Part IV Cloze (15 minutes)

  Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked [A] ,[B] ,[C] and [D] on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  As a physician who travels quite a lot, I spend a lot of time on planes listening for that dreadedIs there a doctor on board?” announcement. Ive been 71 only once ? for a woman who had merely fainted. But the 72 made me quite curious about how 73 this kind of thing happens I wondered what I would do if 74 with a real midair medical emergency ? without access 75 a hospital staff and the usual emergency equipment. So 76 the New England Journal of Medicine last week 77 a study about in-flight medical events, I read it 78 interest.

  The study estimated that there are a(n) 79 of 30 in-flight medical emergencies on U.S. flights every day. Most of them are not 80; fainting and dizziness are the most frequent complaints. 81 13% of them ? roughly four a day ? are serious enough to 82 a pilot to change course. The most common of the serious emergencies 83 heart trouble, strokes, and difficulty breathing.

  Lets face it: plane rides are 84. For starters, cabin pressures at high altitudes are set at roughly 85 they would be if you lived at 5,000 to 8,000 feet above sea level. Most people can tolerate these pressures pretty 86, but passengers with heart disease 87 experience chest pains as a result of the reduced amount of oxygen flowing through their blood. 88 common in-flight problem is deep venous thrombosis ? the so-called economy class syndrome (综合症). 89 happens, dont panic. Things are getting better on the in-flight-emergency front. Thanks to more recent legislation, flights with at 90 one attendant are starting to install emergency medical kits to treat heart attacks.

  完形文章的出处:

  Is There a Doctor Onboard?

  As a physician who travels quite a bit, I spend a lot of time on planes listening for that dreaded " Is there a doctor onboard?" announcement. I've been called only once--for a woman who had merely fainted. But the incident made me curious about how often this kind of thing happens. I wondered what I would do if confronted with a real midair medical emergency--without access to a hospital staff and the usual emergency equipment. So when the New England Journal of Medicine last week published a study about in-flight medical events, I read it with interest.

  The study estimated that there are an average of 30 in-flight medical emergencies on US flights every day. Most of them are not grave; fainting, dizziness and hyperventilation are the most frequent complaints. But 13% of them?roughly four a day--are serious enough to require a pilot to change course. The most common of the serious emergencies include heart trouble (46%), strokes and other neurological problems (18%), and difficulty breathing (6%).

  Let's face it: plane rides are stressful. For starters, cabin pressures at high altitudes are set at roughly what they would be if you lived at 5000 to 8000 feet above sea level. Most people can tolerate these pressures pretty easily, But passengers with heart disease may experience chest pains as a result of the reduced amount of oxygen flowing through their blood. Low pressure can also cause the air in body cavities to expand -- as much as 30%. Again, most people wont notice anything beyond mild stomach cramping. But if you've recently had an operation, your wound could open and if a medical device has been implanted in your body--a splint, a tracheotomy tube or a catheter--it could expand and cause injury. Another common in-flight problem is deep venous thrombosis--the so-called economy-class syndrome. when you sit too long in a cramped position, the blood in your legs tends to clot. Most people just get sore calves. But blood clots, left untreated, could travel to the lungs, causing breathing difficulties and even death. Such clots are readily prevented by keeping blood flowing; walk and stretch your legs when possible. Whatever you do, dont panic. things are looking up on the in-flight-emergency front. Doctors who come to passengers' aid used to worry about getting sued; their fears have lifted somewhat since the 1998 Aviation medical Assistance Act gave them "good Samaritan" protection. and thanks to more recent legislation, flights with at least one attendant are starting to install emergency medical kits with automated defibrillators to treat heart attacks. are you still wondering if you are healthy enough to fly? if you can walk 150 ft. or climb a flight of stairs without getting winded, you'll probably do just fine. Having a Doctor close by doesnt hurt, either.

  71 {A) called }C) Informed

  B) addressed D) surveyed

  72 A) Accident {C) incident}

  B) condition D) disaster

  73 A) soon C) many

  B) long {D} often}

  74 {A) confronted }C) identified

  B) treated D) provided

  75 A) for C) by

  {B} to} D) through

  76 A) before{ C) when}

  B) since D) while

  77 A) collected C) discovered

  B) conducted {D} published}

  78 A) by {C) with}

  B) of D) in

  79 A) amount C) sum

  {B) average} D) number

  80 A) significant C) common

  B) heavy{ D} serious}

  81 A) For {C) But}

  B) On D) So

  82 {A) require} C) engage

  B) inspire D) command

  83{A) include }C) imply

  B) confine D) contain

  84 A) enjoyable C) tedious

  B) stimulating {D) stressful}

  85 A) who C) which

  {B} what }D) that

  86 A) harshly {C) easily}

  B) reluctantly D) casually

  87 A) ought to C) used to

  {B) may} D) need

  88 A) Any C) Other

  B) One {D} Another}

  89 {A) Whatever} C) Whenever

  C) Whichever D) Wherever

  90 A) most{ C) least}

  B) worst D) best

  Part V. Writing (30 minutes)

  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Should the University Campus Be Open to Tourists? You should write at Least 120 words following the outline given below:

  1.名校校园正成为旅游新热点

  2.校园是否应对游客开放,人们看法不同

  3.我认为……

  Should the University Campus Be Open to Tourists?

  There is a heated debate over whether the university campus should be open to tourists, as more and more people list famous universities as tourist attractions. It is commonly accepted that university campus should embrace tourists from across the country. In contrast, others think that the university campus should be closed to tourists.

  Those who hold the first opinion suggest that the university is mainly funded by the state and the taxpayers have the right to look around the university. In their view, the tourists, both parents and prospective students, can enjoy the beautiful scenery as well as the academic, cultural and historical atmosphere during their visits. However, others think the interests of the university and its students should be taken into account. They argue that too many tourists will add a burden to the security department of the university and destroy the quiet environment for the student to study effectively.

  Considering one after another, I stand on the side of the former idea. First of all, a university should be an open place and instill the spirit of openness in its students. Furthermore, in our country, it is the people who pay the tax and support the university. Thirdly, the university should improve itself to meet the increasing demands. Therefore, the university campus should welcome all tourists.




相关文章